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Umbilical folds (median, medial, and lateral) are reflections of the parietal peritoneum that are raised from the body wall by underlying structures. The median umbilical fold extends from the urinary bladder to the umbilicus and covers the median umbilical ligament (the remnant of the urachus). The two medial umbilical folds cover the medial umbilical ligaments (occluded remnants of the fetal umbilical arteries). Two lateral umbilical folds cover the inferior epigastric vessels. The supravesical fossae are between the median and medial umbilical folds, the medial inguinal fossae (inguinal triangles) are between the medial and lateral umbilical folds, and the lateral inguinal fossae and deep inguinal rings are lateral to the lateral umbilical folds.

From Grant’s Atlas

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For the first 2 pictures:

A. and B. Cricothyroid. C. Muscles of larynx revealed by cutting thyroid cartilage along dashed line (A) and reflecting the right thyroid lamina anteriorly. D. Thyro-arytenoid. E. Vocalis. F. Lateral crico-arytenoid. G. Posterior view of muscles of larynx. H. Oblique arytenoid. I. Transverse arytenoid. J. Posterior crico-arytenoid.

The intrinsic laryngeal muscles move the laryngeal cartilages, making alterations in the length and tension of the vocal folds and in the size and shape of the rima glottidis. All but one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx is supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (CN X). The cricothyroid muscle (A and B) is supplied by the external laryngeal nerve, one of the two terminal branches of the superior laryngeal nerve.

For the third and fourth pictures:

A, B, and E. Articulated laryngeal skeleton. C. and D. Cartilages disarticulated and separated. F. Epiglottis and hyo-epiglottic ligament. G. Conus elasticus and rima glottidis.

The larynx extends vertically from the tip of the epiglottis to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage. The hyoid bone is generally not regarded as part of the larynx.

The cricoid cartilage is the only cartilage that totally encircles the airway.

The rima glottidis is the aperture between the vocal folds. During normal respiration, it is narrow and wedge-shaped; during forced respiration, it is wide. Variations in the tension and length of the vocal folds, in the width of the rima glottidis, and in the intensity of the expiratory effort produce changes in the pitch of the voice.

Laryngeal fractures may result from blows received in sports such as kickboxing and hockey or from compression by a shoulder strap during an automobile accident. Laryngeal fractures produce submucous hemorrhage and edema, respiratory obstruction, hoarseness, and sometimes a temporary inability to speak. The thyroid, cricoid, and most of the arytenoid cartilages often ossify as age advances, commencing at approximately 25 years of age in the thyroid cartilage.

For the fifth picture:

The pharyngeal opening of the pharyngotympanic tube is located approximately 1 cm posterior to the inferior concha.

The pharyngeal tonsil lies in the mucous membrane of the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx.

The palatine glands lie in the soft palate.

The palatine tonsil lies in the tonsillar fossa between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches.

Each lingual follicle has the duct of a mucous gland opening onto its surface; collectively, the follicles are known as the lingual tonsil.

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Repost @dt.color
Dental anatomy with neon effect 🔦

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do you have any tips for drawing a nose when the face is front facing?

This was really fast but I hope this helps:


Depending on the shape of the nose, the way you chose to render the contour lines will change.  I used Rose, Quazky, and Glasner as examples in the lower right corner there.  For TH, I generally don’t render the bottom of the nose with a line but with a shadow for simplicity’s sake.  I hope that makes sense.

PS - I made a new brush for rendering technical drawings and I love it. *A*

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