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Hi Essi! How interested do I need to be in Linguistics in order to join your Discord? I would love to join but I'm not all that interested in linguistics so idk if I should. I love your blog and I hope you have a nice day!! -Bluejay

Hi! The server is for people who are interested in languages, people who are interested in linguistics, and people who are interested in both. Therefore you can join even if you aren’t interested in linguistics. A fair warning though: by joining, you might get interested in linguistics. 😉 Hoping to see you on the server soon!

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Bengali Verb Conjugations
Class I Verbs: CVC/VC Endings

This chart displays endings for standard CVC/VC verbs. These can also be applied to plural equivalents, as Bangla does not distinguish number for conjugations. For example, আমি and আমরা share the ending “ ি” for the simple present tense: “আমি করি” and “আমরা করি” for “I do” and “we do.”

Conjugate in Bangla:

  1. Drop root verb ending to reveal stem
    -লেখা - া = লেখ [lekha - a = lekh]
  2. Mutate vowel appropriately
    -High stem: লেখ –> লিখ [lekh –> likh]
    -Low stem: লেখ –> লেখ [lekh –> lekh]
  3. Attach proper ending
    -High stem: লিখ + ি = লিখি [likh + i = likhi]
    -Low stem: লেখ + ো = লেখো [lekh + o = lekho]
  4. Pair with corresponding pronoun –optional unless you want to be formal, apply emphasis, or provide clarity; Bengali verbs can imply pronouns on their own.
    -High stem: আমি লিখি [ami likhi]
    -Low stem: তোমরা লেখো [tomra lekho]
  5. Form your sentence! –remember that verbs go at the end of your phrase thanks to Bangla’s SOV word order.
    -High stem: আমি আমার নাম লিখি। (I write my name)
    -Low stem: তোমরা খারাপ লেখো। (You write badly)

For an example chart on the application of these verb endings, check out my করা chart.

For more information on Bengali verb conjugation and vowel mutation, check out this post.

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Opinion on - Duolingo Leagues

Disclaimer - this is my opinion. I have no intention of offending anybody.

So, Duolingo Leagues. Recently it came to light that more leagues have been added after the Ruby league, but due to A/B testing not everyone has it. I don’t have it yet and I’m glad I don’t.

I was never active in my language clubs, so when the initial leagues update rolled out for everyone I was glad for the change. I made my way through the bronze and silver leagues easily enough, enjoying the challenge and competition. Then came the day where I was promoted to the gold league. I did my usual lesson in the morning, then headed off to school. Several hours later, when I had finished all my homework, I opened the app and prepared to do a few more lessons. I checked on the league… and was shocked to see myself in the demotion zone. I had never been in that zone in the previous two leagues. I needed 500 XP to get into the promotion zone, and the top account had nearly 2000 XP. Within just under twelve hours of the league beginning.

Needless to say this demotivated me.

I did the bare minimum to stay in the league. The next week I was extremely busy and just did enough to keep my streak, and ended up being demoted into the silver league.

Long story short I’m now in the sapphire league, trying to get into the ruby league. The thought of trying to get through additional cut throat leagues isn’t pleasant.

For some, the leagues are great. It adds an element of competition and can be motivating for some. But for me, I start off motivated, powering through the lessons in an attempt to stay out of the demotion zone, then get burnt out and only go on Duolingo to keep up my streak. It’s made language learning a chore for me, which I don’t want. Honestly, the only thing keeping me on Duolingo is my streak. I don’t want the owl to hurt me.

To conclude, I don’t like the leagues. One of my goals in my language notebook is to complete the Duolingo tree. Once upon a time I did finish it, but then they updated the tree. The leagues frustrate me and have seriously made me consider quitting Duolingo, but my streak and the goal to (re)finish the tree is what’s keeping me there.

What’s your opinion on the leagues?

I want to do more posts like these, so stay tuned!

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I had three mental breakdown while doing exercise for hindi classes and I made only 7 sentences.

Pray for me

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Spanish grammar

Sentence structure

Indirect speech

Indirect speech, also known as reported speech, is used to say what another person has said. In indirect speech, pronouns, verb conjugations and sometimes the tense is changed to reflect that we are repeating someone else’s words. Indirect speech is often introduced by a reporting verb or phrase such as afirmar (to affirm), contar (to tell), creer (to believe), decir (to say), exclamar (to exclaim), exigir (to demand), explicar (to explain), informar (to inform), pretender (to pretend), and responder (to answer).

Changing direct speech to indirect speech

To convert direct speech into indirect speech, it’s important to take note of the following points:

  1. personal pronouns change from first to third person: Él dijo: «Yo he visto a una actriz de la tele» (He said: “I have seen a TV actress”) → Él dijo que él había visto una actriz de la tele (He said that he had seen a TV actress)
  2. verb conjugations change from first to third person and the tense changes: Él dijo: «Yo la volveré a atender mañana» (He said: “I’ll wait on her again tomorrow”) → Él dijo que la volvería a atender el día siguiente (He said that he would wait on her again the following day)
  3. information about place and time changes: Él dijo: «Ella estuvo aquí ayer» (He said: “She was here yesterday”) → Él dijo que ella había estado allí el día anterior (He said that she had been there the previous day)

Declarative statements

In indirect speech, declarative sentences are linked to an introductory clause using the word que. For example, Él dijo: «Yo la reconocí de inmediato» (He said: “I recognized her immediately”) → Él dijo que él la había reconocido de inmediato (He said that he had recognized her immediately).

Indirect questions

Question in indirect speech are not punctuated with a question mark. They follow the regular subject-verb-object word order. Open questions are introduced by a question word or an interrogative pronoun: Yo pregunté: «¿Cómo es ella?» (I asked: “How is she?”) → Yo pregunté cómo era ella (I asked how she was).

Yes-no questions are introduced by si: Yo pregunté: «¿Te dejó propina?» (I asked: “Did she leave you a tip?”) → Yo pregunté si ella le había dejado propina (I asked if she had left him/her a tip).

Changing the tense

When the introductory clause is in the present, future or perfect indicative tense, we don’t change the tense in indirect speech. However, first pronouns and verb conjugations change to the third person, as explained before.

When the introductory clause is in the preterite, imperfect or past perfect indicative tense, the tense has to be set back in indirect speech:

  • present → imperfect: «Tengo hambre» (”I’m hungry”) → Ella dijo que tenía hambre (She said she was hungry)
  • preterite/perfect → past perfect: «He pagado la cuenta» (”I paid the bill”) → Ella dijo que había pagado la cuenta (She said she had paid the bill)
  • imperfect → imperfect/past perfect: «La sopa estaba muy caliente» (”The soup was very hot”) → Ella dijo que la sopa estaba muy caliente (She said that the soup was very hot)
  • future/conditional → conditional: «Llamaré a un taxi» (”I’ll call a cab”) → Ella dijo que llamaría a un taxi (She said that she would call a cab)
  • future perfect/conditional perfect → conditional perfect: «Habré perdido el monedero» (”I must have lost my wallet”) → Ella dijo que habría perdido el monedero (She said that she must have lost her wallet)
  • imperative/present subjunctive/imperfect subjunctive → imperfect subjunctive: «Pare aquí, por favor» (”Stop here, please”) → Ella pidió que parara allí (She asked him/her to stop there)
  • perfect subjunctive → past perfect subjunctive: «Quizá haya olvidado el monedero en el restaurante» (”Perhaps I left my wallet in the restaurant”) → Ella pensó que quizá hubiera/hubiese olvidado el monedero en el restaurante (She thought that perhaps she had left her wallet in the restaurant)

Changing the place and time

All references to time and place have to be changed accordingly to reflect indirect speech.

  • hoy (today) → aquel día (that day)
  • ahora (now) → entonces (then)
  • ayer (yesterday) → el día anterior (the previous day)
  • la semana pasada (last week) → la semana anterior (the previous week)
  • el próximo año (next year) → el año siguiente (the following year)
  • mañana (tomorrow) → el día siguiente (the following day)
  • aquí (here) → allí (there)
  • este/a… (this) → aquello/a… (that)
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kumpikin - both 
molemmat - both (always in plural form!)

Actually my textbook told me that kumpikin is ALWAYS in singular form, but then from looking at Wiktionary, and the examples below it seems like kumpikin can equally be used in plural (whereas molemmat is indeed always plural..)


Kumpikin on vihreä. - Both are green.

Kummatkin ovat uusia. - Both are new. 

Kummallakin paikalla on hyvä kahvila. - There is a good cafe at both places.

Minä rakastan kumpaakin! - I love both!


Then, if I’m not mistaken, molemmat can be used in much the same way:

Molemmat ovat vihreitä. - Both are green.

Molemmat ovat uusia. - Both are new.

Molemmilla paikoilla on hyvä kahvila. - There is a good cafe at both places.

Minä rakastan molempia! - I love both!

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August 16, 2019 || 11:41 PM

100 Days of Journaling - Day 1

大家好!我的中文名字是钱雪岚。我是一名大学生。我研究营养。我二十三岁。我喜欢吃巧克力和披萨。哈哈 现在我不知道写什么。哦! 今天我去了商店买了杂货。我现在有十个麦片。


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[Sorry about the quality of the recording I just use my phone lmao]


Your whakapapa is your genealogy; your ancestors and descendants. For Māori this is very important. There are different types of whakapapa we recite, some with spouses, some a single line of decent etc, but for the most part saying three or four generations should suffice.

Some vocabulary:
koroua - grandfather
kuia - grandmother
tipuna - ancestor
whaea/māmā - mother
matua/pāpā - father
tāne - husband (this also means man)
wahine - wife (this also means woman)
tamāhine - daughter
tama - son
tamaiti - child
hunaonga - in-law (generation below. Before wahine or tāne)
hungawai - in-law (generation above. Before matua/pāpā or whaea/māmā)
mokopuna - grandchild
i te taha o tōku [māmā/pāpā] - on my [mum/dad]’s side

Brother and sister don’t have a one to one from English to Māori. The terms change depending on age and whether they are the same gender as you.

Tuakana - older sibling of the same gender
Teina - younger sibling of the same gender

If you are a woman, your brothers, regardless of whether they are older or younger are tungāne. If you are a man, your sisters regardless of their age are your tuahine.

If you’re non binary/genderqueer/agender (etc), You’ll just have to pick how you refer to your siblings. I’m genderfluid so I switch to match my gender. When I’m neither I just use tuahine and tungāne as I figure they’re not the same gender as me so they can’t be tuakana/teina.

Many of these terms change slightly in the plural form:

tīpuna - ancestors
mātua - parents
wāhine - wives/women
tamariki - children
tuākana - older siblings of the same gender
tēina - younger siblings of the same gender
tuāhine - sisters (of a man)

To say ‘my’ (as in my sister) there are a few rules. I’ll do another post all about possession, but for now, this is what you need to know:

tōku - my (of the same generation and higher) singular. Plural = ōku
tāku - my (of the generations below) singular. Plural = āku
taku - my (neutral. Can use with any relation). Singular. Plural = aku

So, the sentence is :

Ko [name] tōku/tāku/taku [relation].

If you want to say two people, for example, two sisters, use Ko [name1] rāua, Ko [name2] ōku/āku/aku.

For three or more, use rātou instead of rāua, and always put a ‘Ko’ in front of everyone’s name.

You finish your whakapapa with your own name, which you can either say “ko [name] ahau” or “ko [name] tōku/taku ingoa”.

Here is an example of a whakapapa (the person is a woman named Hinemoa).

Ko Te Arorangi tōku koroua i te taha o tōku matua.
Ko Sarah tōku kuia i te taha o tōku matua.
Ko Wiremu tōku koroua i te taha o tōku whaea
Ko Riripeti tōku kuia i te taha o tōku whaea.
Ko Nikau tōku matua.
Ko Mere tōku whaea.
Ko Hanaia rāua ko Rāhera ōku tuākana.
Ko Hana tōku teina.
Ko Hirini tōku tungāne.
Ko Lina tōku wahine.
Ko Roimata rātou, ko Elena, ko Mia āku tamāhine.
Ko Mateo tāku tama.
Ko Hinemoa ahau.

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For Māori where you come from, and who you come from is extremely important. When you introduce yourself in a Māori context, you will recite your pepeha and your whakapapa (see this post).

Pepeha doesn’t really have an English equivalent. It establishes who you are as a person, and how you fit into the world. For now, I’ll go over a simple pepeha, but they can be very long and detailed.

A pepeha will include the following:

Your mountain. This should be a mountain that you feel connected to. Perhaps a mountain in the city you were born, a mountain that you climbed (say the first ever mountain that you climbed and you think of it fondly), a hill you used to play on as a child etc. It doesn’t have to be a mountain, it could be a hill, or even a sand dune. Any rising land that you feel a connection to.

Your river. This should be a river, ocean, lake etc. that you feel a connection to.

Your waka. For Māori when we talk of our waka this is referring to the vessel in which our original ancestors came to New Zealand from Hawaiki. If you are an immigrant you can say the name of the plane which brought you to that country, or if you are a settler you can say the name of the ship your ancestors came on.

Your marae. A marae is a meeting house, where business and other affairs take place. If you go to a church/religious building you can say this, or if you are in a type of club that meets up in a specific building you can use this too.

Your hapū. The best English equivalent of this is a clan. If you have a clan, you can use this. If not, perhaps use your surname (as it is in a sense a clan), or any larger group you feel connected to.

Your iwi. The best English equivalent is tribe. If you have a tribe use this, else you can use your ethnic group, or any community you belong to.

You don’t have to give all of these things, if you really can’t think of something (say for waka or hapū), but I would at least include a mountain (or equivalent), a river (or equivalent), and an iwi (or equivalent). For example, I don’t know my hapū for my grandmother so I’ll just not say anything there.

The structure of the sentence is

Ko [name of thing] tōku [thing], or Ko [name of thing] te [thing].

Tōku means “my”, so if you use this structure it is indicating a closeness of bond. If you don’t feel strongly you can use “te”, which means “the” as it is more ‘neutral’.

Here is a list of words:

Maunga - mountain
Puke - hill
Tāhuahua - sand dune
Awa - river
Moana - ocean
Roto - lake

Here is an example of my pepeha, both from my grandfather’s side (so you can see what a ‘foreign’ pepeha looks like and from my grandmother’s side, so you can see what a Māori one looks like)

Ko Hikurangi tōku maunga.
Ko Waiapu tōku awa
Ko Horouta tōku waka
Ko Te Aowera tōku marae.
Ko Ngāti Porou tōku iwi.

Ko Cnoic na Seithe tōku maunga.
Ko An Laoi tōku awa.
Ko MacEoghain tōku hapū
Ko Airihi tōku iwi

If you need any other words, message me or send me an ask, I’m always happy to help.

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делать вид  (literally “to make a view”) means to pretend, to act like, to make a look in russian

we use “что” or “будто” after “делать вид” to make sentences


  • хватит делать вид что ты меня слушаешь! stop pretending to be listening to me!
  • она делает вид что у неё всё хорошо, но это не так she pretends that’s she’s doing okay, but it’s not true
  • ты сделал вид будто не узнал меня - you acted like you didn’t recognize me

не подавать виду(or вида) =  Ничем не обнаруживать своих мыслей, чувств, намерений, желаний

Синонимы: скрывать, не показывать виду, держать при себе, не показывать, таить, не выдавать

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I might be behind others in getting here but it looks like theyre all speaking English in Philadelphia, considering they all seem to have a common language and -

1) Thomas uses English to threaten Beck:


2) The first language used over the Library PA is English:


This also covers what they’re speaking to everyone in England in S&I, if they’re all conversant in English.

From what we know of history, there’s room for extensive British colonization (that’s possibly mostly been reclaimed) even if the US hasnt formed to start its imperialism.

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Vocabulary: Places

  • 장소: Place
  • 병원: Hospital
  • 학교: School
  • 도서관: Library
  • 체육관: Gym
  • 호텔: Hotel
  • 식당: Restaurant
  • 미용실: Hair salon
  • 문구점: Stationery store
  • 교회: church
  • 편의점: Convenience store
  • 수영장: Swimming Pool
  • 공원: park
  • 찜질방: Korean Sauna
  • 놀이터: Playground
  • 놀이동산(공원): Amusement park
  • 노래방: Karaoke
  • 가게: Store/Shop
  • 건물: Building
  • 층: floor
  • 계단: Stairs
  • 승강기/엘레베이터: Elevator
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I’ve been teaching myself this song the past few days. I can finally sing it while looking at the Japanese lyrics and at full speed!

I use japanese io to read the lyrics and I slow down the song on youtube.

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You can think there are many ways, but you will probably face config export issues and a lot of mess around. Workaround:

  1. Set a new default language.
  2. Delete old default language completely.
  3. Reinstall it.
  4. Re-export configs.
  5. Done.

Also think of setting default language to English, and use language selection instead.

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