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aroacecultureisa day ago
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lesbian oriented aroace culture is seeing women and going "MA'AM YOU'RE GORGEOUS 馃槏馃挄馃槡馃サ馃挮馃" but in a non-sexual, non-romantic way. Just like aesthetically pleasing and admirable <3
aroace culture
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jovianiana day ago
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i missed susie
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superflua2 days ago
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a veces no respondo mensajes en el momento y despu茅s me da verg眉enza contestar tarde, perd贸nenme
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erinkllyha day ago
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synchronousemmaa day ago
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20th 鈥 25th October: The long evenings Emma had fearfully anticipated
Read and Comment on Wordpress
Read: Vol. 1, ch. 3; pp. 11鈥13 ("Mr. Woodhouse was fond of society" through to "long evenings she had fearfully anticipated").
Context
Emma attempts to entertain herself and her father with visitors.聽During this time as in the forgoing weeks, Emma is presumably left alone while Mr. Woodhouse takes his naps 鈥渁s usual鈥 between dinner (likely served sometime in the afternoon) and tea (served sometime in the evening) (Austen vol. 1, ch.1; p. 1). The 鈥渆vening鈥 in particular as a time of day that must be struggled through is brought up repeatedly in this and preceding chapters.
Readings and Interpretations
The Ranks of the Chosen
In this passage, we learn more about the stratification of Highbury society. A modern understanding of socioeconomic 鈥渃lass鈥 that groups people together into various strata, and thus unites as much as it divides them, is less to the point here than a Georgian concept of 鈥渞ank鈥 or 鈥渄egree,鈥 in which each individual occupies their own rung on the ladder (see Hume, p. 58). Graham Martin notes another conceptual difference between the analyses implied by the two terms: 鈥淸w]here 鈥榗lass鈥 points to an economic structure of competing interests, 鈥榬ank鈥 points to a social structure, a hierarchical order which, in ideological terms, is consensual鈥 (p. 133). That is, a Burkean conservatism would hold that stratification in terms of rank is not only natural, but also to the benefit of all involved.
This passage divides Highbury, including characters we have already met and some whom we will see 鈥榦n stage鈥 only later, into 鈥渢he chosen and the best鈥 and 鈥渁 second set.鈥 Among this 鈥渟econd set鈥 is Mrs. Bates, who is described as being 鈥渃onsidered with all the regard and respect which a harmless old lady, under such untoward circumstances, can excite.鈥 This somewhat sardonic statement is notable to me in that it could mean just anything鈥攈owever, the idea that Mrs. Bates鈥檚 鈥渦ntoward circumstances鈥 moderate rather than increase her neighbours鈥 respect is then immediately enforced with the subsequent lines about her daughter, Miss Bates: she 鈥渆njoyed a most uncommon degree of popularity for a woman neither young, handsome, rich, nor married鈥 (Austen vol. 1, ch. 3; p. 11).
It is often pointed out that this last string of adjectives more or less reverses the famous 鈥渉andsome, clever, and rich鈥 that begins the novel. Thus Mary Hong:
The contrast between her possessing no features which would make Hetty Bates a character worthy of the reader's attention [such as intellectual superiority, beauty, or cleverness] and her inclusive tendencies [such as universal good-will] seems to cast her as the exact opposite of the "handsome, clever, and rich" heroine [鈥 Miss Bates plays a secondary or supporting role to the centrality of Emma, as suggested through the similar syntax but oppositional language that introduces both (p. 240).
Louise Flavin follows a similar observation with the point that 鈥淸w]hile Miss Bates is unlike Emma Woodhouse in most obvious ways, a comparison is suggested by the fact that she, like Emma, cares for an aging parent and has a happy and contented disposition. This comparison prepares us for Emma鈥檚 growing obsession with Miss Bates and 鈥榟er set,鈥 a rivalry that occupies Emma鈥檚 mind鈥 in future installments (n.p.).1
Also in regards to Miss Bates, commenters who view Emma聽as being in part an indictment of the vulnerability of fortuneless women in Georgian society often read the description of her as standing 鈥渋n the very worst predicament in the world for having much of the public favour,鈥 having 鈥渘o intellectual superiority to make atonement to herself, or frighten those who might hate her into outward respect鈥 as containing a particular asperity, or an ominous tone (see for example Harding, p. 350; Smith, p. 137).
The Most Come-at-Able
Some scholars attribute the hierarchisation of potential visitors in this section to Emma (meaning that the description of Miss Bates and company as 鈥渃ome-at-able鈥 must be a demonstration of free indirect style). See for example John Mullan:
Austen, with a refusal of moralism worthy of Flaubert, abandons her protagonist to her snobbery and confidently risks inciting foolish readers to think that the author must be a snob too. Emma鈥檚 snobbery pervades the novel, from that moment when we hear Mrs Goddard, the mistress of the little girls鈥 boarding school, and Mrs and Miss Bates described as 鈥渢he most come-at-able鈥 denizens of Highbury (meaning that they are at the beck and call of Emma and her hypochondriac father) (n.p.).
Linda Bree, in contrast, considers the phrase 鈥渃ome-at-able鈥 to be a 鈥渃olloquialism[]鈥 鈥渋n the narrative commentary,鈥 rather than a phrase pulled from Emma鈥檚 perspective鈥攕uch colloquialisms on the part of the narrator and the characters all 鈥渃ontribute[] to the sense of 鈥榦rdinary life鈥 in Highbury鈥 (p. 98). Either way, the phrase is certainly a snappy and evocative one.
A Good Old-Fashioned Boarding-School
Some scholars attribute the sentiments in the passage describing the difference between 鈥渁 real, honest, old-fashioned Boarding-school鈥 and a 鈥渟eminary鈥 peddling expensive 鈥渘onsense鈥 to Austen herself. In this reading, the outburst on women鈥檚 education indicates a rare looseness or break in the general tightness of the novelistic texture of Emma, which usually includes only what is necessary. For example, per Robert Merrett:
The novelist鈥檚 respect for traditional eighteenth-century ethical thought and ideas about the mind is very evident in her conduct of Emma. For example, she does not hesitate to drop her usually indirect narrative voice to satirize progressive education which would treat human nature too systematically [鈥 This defence of traditional values on Jane Austen鈥檚 part clearly shows how much she enjoys promoting pragmatic, prudent, and rational expectations about human nature (p. 53).
In contrast, Massimiliano Morini argues that the passage represents 鈥渢he narrator-as-a-character (a figure conflated by many with Austen herself) com[ing] out of impersonal hiding鈥: 鈥渢he narrator comes out not by saying 鈥業,鈥 but by expressing in a very direct manner his/her personal opinions on contemporary affairs (in this case, the confusion with the historical Jane Austen is almost inevitable)鈥 (p. 422).
T.A.B. Corley gives some insight into the status of the boarding-school as a 鈥渃ommercial enterprise,鈥 and to Mrs. Goddard鈥檚 placement in Highbury鈥檚 hierarchy:
Some scholars have had difficulty in deciding on Mrs Goddard鈥檚 precise social status in Highbury. She certainly belongs to the second set, and is willing to sit with Mr Woodhouse in the evenings when summoned, while her respectful request to Emma over Harriet Smith indicates a deference towards her social superiors. She is unlikely ever to have been entertained as an equal by Mr Knightley聽(p. 125).
Nevertheless, 鈥淸h]er gross income could have been well over 拢700 a year, with some being put away for her old age. She is neither depressed nor impoverished. Economically, therefore, Mrs Goddard is a not unimportant personage in Highbury.鈥 Corley attributes the fact that she nevertheless considers herself at the disposal of a summons from the Woodhouses (rather than dining with another family in Highbury on terms of equality or near-equality) in part to the circumstance that 鈥渁t Hartfield there is the advantage of an early hour of dismissal and a coach ride home鈥 (pp. 125-6).
Footnotes
1. Maaja Stewart likewise compares Emma and Miss Bates on the strength of this passage (pp. 77-8). See also Elizabeth Sabiston, who reads Emma and Miss Bates鈥檚 shared care of an ageing parent as a marker of the 鈥渇eminine plight of dependence and subordination鈥 that recurs throughout the novel: 鈥淓mma is no freer, in fact, than the spinsters and widows living in genteel poverty鈥 (p. 24).
Discussion Questions
1. What might cause the emphasis on 鈥渆vening鈥 (as opposed to morning, or afternoon) as a time of day that is particularly boring, lonely, or necessary to fill?
2. Is the description of 鈥渢he chosen and the best鈥 versus the 鈥渟econd,鈥 鈥渃ome-at-able鈥 set focalised through Emma, is it narratorial commentary, or does it shade back and forth between the two? Is it possible for it to be both simultaneously? How does the answer to this question change how we read the book (and its attitude to things such as intelligence, beauty, and rank)?
3. Is the 鈥渟eminary鈥 passage a transparent outburst of Austen鈥檚 own opinions on women鈥檚 education, or can we attribute the point of view here to someone or something else? What is the purpose of this passage?
Bibliography
Bree, Linda. 鈥淪tyle, Structure, Language.鈥 In Sabor (2015), pp. 88-104.
Corley, T. A. B. 鈥淛ane Austen鈥檚 鈥楻eal, Honest, Old-Fashioned Boarding-School鈥: Mrs La Tournelle and Mrs Goddard.鈥 Women鈥檚 Writing聽5.1 (1998), pp. 113-30. DOI: 10.1080/09699089800200035.
Flavin, Louise. 鈥淔ree Indirect Discourse and the Clever Heroine of Emma.鈥 Persuasions 13 (1991), pp. 50-7.
Harding, D. W. 鈥淩egulated Hatred: An Aspect of the Work of Jane Austen.鈥 Scrutiny聽8 (March 1940), pp. 346鈥62.
Hong, Mary. "鈥楢 Great Talker upon Little Matters鈥: Trivializing the Everyday in Emma.鈥 Novel: A Forum on Fiction聽38.2/3 (Spring - Summer 2005), pp. 235鈥53. DOI: 10.1215/ddnov.038020235.
Hume, Robert D. 鈥淢oney and Rank.鈥 In Sabor (2015), pp. 52-67.
Martin, Graham. 鈥淎usten and Class.鈥 Women's Writing 5.1 (1998), pp. 131鈥44. DOI: 10.1080/09699089800200028.
Merrett, Robert聽James. 鈥淭he Concept of Mind in Emma.鈥 English Studies in Canada聽6.1 (Spring 1980), pp. 39鈥55. DOI: 10.1353/esc.1980.0046.
Morini, Massimiliano. 鈥淲ho Evaluates Whom and What in Jane Austen鈥檚 Novels?鈥 Style 41.4 Rhetoric and Cognition (Winter 2007), pp. 409鈥33.
Mullan, John. 鈥淗ow Jane Austen鈥檚 Emma聽Changed the Course of Fiction.鈥 The Guardian. 5 December 2015.
Sabiston, Elizabeth Jean. The Prison of Womanhood: Four Provincial Heroines in Nineteenth-Century Fiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1987.
Sabor, Peter, ed. The Cambridge Companion to 鈥楨mma' (Cambridge Companions to Literature). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Smith, LeRoy W. Jane Austen and the Drama of Woman. London: Macmillan (1983).
Stewart, Maaja. 鈥淭he Fools in Austen鈥檚 Emma.鈥 Nineteenth-Century Literature聽41.1 (June 1986), pp. 72鈥86.
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c2stan2 days ago
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ferrari making all the thumbnails of their drivers look like youtube couples is exactly the kind of energy i expect from ferrari as a brand
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pinsaroulettes2 days ago
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Charles Leclerc and Tony Parker at the Milwaukee Bucks game on October 19, 2021
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anghraine2 days ago
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I made the mistake of reading the comments on a post and saw someone insisting that Faramir is too minor a character for the movies鈥 ... uh, treatment of him to really matter and he鈥檚 not significant to Tolkien鈥檚 treatment of war.
what
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ilragazzodellultimobanco11 hours ago
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Danno fuoco ai nostri sogni e poi ci chiamano giovent霉 bruciata.
ilragazzodellultimobanco
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sleeplessangelsa day ago
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Never forget how much of an icon Haruhi is. Doesn't care about gender at all. Catch phrase is "I hate these damn rich people."
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legacies-gamea day ago
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Okay this has been living in my head for the past couple of days, but can I get the ROs reactions to moments where our MC is being completely and utterly dense? Like where we鈥檙e supposed to 鈥減lay dumb鈥 but 鈥渘ot t h a t dumb鈥 act. 馃憖 I just stan a simple-minded MC鈥 馃ぁ
These are lovable dumbass hours 馃様馃憣
E: The only RO that's actually met your father so... not entirely surprised to find you're like him in that aspect. Their own father was also super dense at times so they're just used to dealing with lovable idiots. Would probably be a little exasperated like "Sweetheart... I love you but please," but would still patiently explain everything to you until you both were on the same page.
M: Also an idiot but on purpose-- you two would have immense fun as M would egg on any idea you came up with and their eyes would light up with pure, unadulterated glee at the exasperated looks on the rest of the team. What are you going to do? Stop them? I think not. C: You're a dumbass but you're my dumbass. A little exasperated at first, but quickly learns to accept it. Would throw hands with anyone who calls MC out on their tomfoolery. MC: *says something dumb* Random Person: Hey uh that's wro-- C: No it's not, shut the hell up.
T: Early in the relationship, they assume you do it to get a reaction out of them... which works every single time.
All you'd have to say is "The sky is green" and wait for Tene to turn red before going into a half-hour long lecture about how it is most-certainly not green.
Later in the relationship they just grow to accept it, keeping an eye out that you don't get yourself into trouble but otherwise Used to It鈩
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peanit8 months ago
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t-shirt that says "i rely on pharmaceutical drugs to preform routine tasks"
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aradiamegido6 months ago
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evilsexy8 months ago
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dni if you took french in highschool, are shorter than 5鈥6, hate math especially if you hate calculus, own pants that are not black jeans, your first anime was death note, enjoy sweetened coffee, like milk chocolate, can type without looking at the keys, are pisces anything, obey the speed limit ever, don鈥檛 know how to use chopsticks, have cried during a movie, prefer main characters over side characters, kin a blonde haired anime boy, have ever smoked weed, or can鈥檛 tolerate spicy foods
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dom-in-seattlea month ago
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c2stan18 hours ago
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i will need an explanation for the head to head part again
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