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#American history
critical-endangered · 3 hours ago
“Alexander joins forces with James Madison and John Jay to write a series of essays defending the new United States Constitution entitled ‘The Federalist Papers’.”
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“The plan was to write a total of 25 essays, the work divided evenly among the three men, in the end, they wrote 85 essays in the span of six months.”
“John Jay got sick after writing five”
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“James Madison wrote 29.”
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“Hamilton wrote the other 51.”
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So, fun little fact about this book, I have read it twice now and I can safely say you won’t be able to find Jay’s essays easily, you have to swim through the sea of Hamilton and lake of Madison to come across that guy’s work. Just a note I thought I’d add.
Also, fun little fact about me, I am a very big politics nerd, and this morning I was having a bit of a hard time so I grabbed an easily accessible book off the top of my pile to try and cheer myself up. Turns out that doesn’t work, and I ended up crying into the Federalist Papers at 6am, and I honestly I think that’s a bit of a power move on my part if I do say so myself.
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nationsandcannons · 4 hours ago
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Redcoat Regiments: Footmen, Sergeants, and Field Officers (v2)
A redcoat column is on the move, marching to the syncopation of fife and drum and the barking of an officer’s orders. Field officers—captains, colonels, or majors—ride alongside the regiments they command, maneuvering the troops into position. Young drummer boys keep the tempo, the rousing song inspiring courage in the assembled army…
An adventuring party is expected to act as light infantry; skirmishing, ambushing supply trains, and operating behind enemy lines. Patriots were well known for sniping British officers, a tactic considered to be dishonorable, but undoubtedly effective. By taking out an enemy officer, a small party of light infantry could disrupt an entire division.
Footman here is your basic standard infantry unit, and is the “building block” from which a GM can create a battlefield encounter. We’ve calibrated this enemy’s stats pretty carefully, because an average shot from a .70 caliber musket should normally be lethal to the basic enemy. The Foot Sergeant's Volley Fire ability is meant to represent the massed fire battle lines typically deployed during the 18th century, albeit on a small scale.
The Field Officer and Drummer statblocks are designed as force multipliers that can turn a company of footmen into a disciplined fighting force, protecting their allies from fear effects and increasing the effectiveness of Volley Fire. Officers are the heart of any line infantry encounter, keen strategists who lead from the front and rely on their troops to defend them.
This is the second iteration of these statblocks, and by playtesting we’ve learned a few lessons. Combat runs almost like an asymmetric wargame: while groups of footmen alternate between massed volley fire and reloading, players are usually actively skirmishing, hiding behind cover, and angling to take out enemy officers or disrupt the line where they can. This plays out just like the heroic fantasy of a light infantry unit, and lets a GM field large numbers of enemies against crafty players.
Because footmen have to mass into groups, this leaves them vulnerable to AoE effects, especially grenades and artillery fire. Their Regimented ability is intended represent the average soldier’s drill training, and to be both a benefit and a drawback. If two or more footmen don’t have an officer to order a volley, they still gain a benefit from grouping together. However, they explicitly cannot score a critical hit! The damage on firearms is quite high because of the need to reload, and if a low CR enemy with a musket could crit it might one-shot an unlucky player.
GMBinder Links:  Officer & Drummer, Footman & Sergeant
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i-like-old-things · 4 hours ago
Weather with Washington
“Wind at No. West & cold—day clear. Frost in the Morning.”
April 17, 1780
Morristown, New Jersey
The Diaries of George Washington Vol III
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lemonsformunching · 21 hours ago
When the luxurious British passenger ship Titanic sank into the Atlantic Ocean in April 1912, thousands of people fell into the frigid waters.
Only one of the lifeboats that escaped the sinking ship turned back to search for potential survivors. In the darkness, the rescuers found a young Chinese man clinging to a wooden door, shivering but still alive.
That man was Fang Lang, one of six Chinese survivors of the Titanic, and his rescue would go on to inspire a famous scene in the 1997 Hollywood blockbuster Titanic.
But their miraculous survival was not the end of their ordeal.
Within 24 hours of their arrival at the immigrant inspection station in Ellis Island, New York, they were expelled from the country because of the Chinese Exclusion Act, a controversial law that barred the immigration of Chinese people into the US.
The six men disappeared from history - until now. A documentary film that has just premiered in China, The Six, shines a spotlight on their identities and lives, 109 years after the doomed voyage.
It uncovers a tale beyond the Titanic, a story shaped by racial discrimination and anti-immigration policy that has taken on particular resonance today following recent anti-Asian abuse in the US.
The Chinese survivors' names were on the ship's passenger list, and news articles covering the Titanic's sinking briefly mentioned them.
But unlike other Titanic survivors who received praise in the press, the Chinese men were vilified due to the anti-Chinese sentiment in the West in the early 20th Century, according to historians and researchers.
In a report filed days after the sinking, for instance, The Brooklyn Daily Eagle called the Chinese survivors "creatures" who had sprung into the lifeboats "at the first sign of danger" and concealed themselves beneath the seats.
But the documentary production team's research showed this claim was untrue.
They built a replica of the Titanic's lifeboat and found that it would have been impossible for the Chinese men to hide unseen. "I think we see the same thing today. We find immigrants [were] scapegoated by the press," Mr Jones says.
Other media coverage at the time accused the Chinese men of having dressed as women in order to get priority to board the lifeboats.
Titanic historian Tim Maltin says there is no proof the Chinese survivors were stowaways or disguised themselves as women.
"These were stories made up by the press and the public after the event," he tells the BBC.
The rumours may have stemmed from a stigma attached to many male survivors of the Titanic, as at the time the general public felt that women and children should have been prioritised in the rescue.
According to Mr Maltin, the Chinese men tried to help other survivors. Fang Lang, the man who lashed himself to a floating door, later rowed on the lifeboat that rescued him and helped to ferry everyone on board to safety.
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ohtheplacesblog · 22 hours ago
podcast. this week in 40 and over pop culture history. 3/26/21
podcast. this week in 40 and over pop culture history. 3/26/21
Listen while I reminisce on all things pop culture and historical that happened this week, 3/26/21.
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ohtheplacesblog · 22 hours ago
podcast. freestyle friday. this week in 40 and over pop culture history. 3/12/21
podcast. freestyle friday. this week in 40 and over pop culture history. 3/12/21
Join me as I recap fun historical facts in our 40 and over world for 3/12/21.
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360magazine · a day ago
Miss America Partners with Rowan University
Miss America Partners with Rowan University
Miss America Partners with Rowan University for 100th Anniversary Archival Project With an eye on history and ideals of beauty, students digitize Miss America archives “There she is…” One hundred years of artifacts from the Miss America Competition—from jeweled crowns and velvet capes to programs, photographs, judges’ books, oil paintings, films, and business records—tell more than the story…
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i-like-old-things · a day ago
My friend finally finished the first season of Turn after I’ve been begging her for like the past 2 months or so!!! And she liked it!!!! And now she’s going to watch the rest!
(This is the same friend who did the flag thing)
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i-like-old-things · a day ago
Charles Thomson’s Prediction for America
“There must & will undoubtedly be, for the sake of security, some confederation of states: But how many of the states will be comprehended in a Confederacy or how many confederacys there will be is yet uncertain. Were I to hazard a conjecture it would be that the four eastern states [New England] will form one confederacy. [...] New Y [New York state] will be compelled to join this confederacy either voluntarily or by force not from any of the causes aforementioned; But because the eastern states will not think themselves secure if Hudson’s River & the northern lakes, which are keys of the country, are kept by a people independent of and separated from them. [...] New Jersey, Pensylvania, Delaware and Maryland will form another Union. [...] The haughtiness of Virginia, it’s great extent and it’s boundless claims will induce it to set up for itself. And if ever royal government is set up in N. America, here it will first erect its throne. [...] She may then attempt to form an alliance with the Eastern confederacy or the three Southern states which it is not improbable may league together both without any close confederacy. [...] In this conflict America may be a theatre of war [...]”
Charles Thomson to Hannah Thomson
Friday, July 25, 1783
Princeton, New Jersey
I find it interesting how he sections them off. I also enjoy the fact that he glorifies the mid-Atlantic states and then hates on Virginia (there’s only some bias...)
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My interpretation of Thomson’s words
Also I hope I’m not the only one who finds it ironic how the south (not including Virginia) has the Union but the north has the confederacy
*I did cut a bunch of the letter out so here’s the full thing:
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My oddly specific judgment of you based on your favorite AmRev historical figure
George Washington: you either have daddy issues, a God complex, or are an emotionless bastard. If it's all three, then I'll pay for your therapy as you try to regain stability in your life
Alexander Hamilton: you came from the musical. I dont give a fuck if you liked him before 2015; you came from the musical and I'm not changing my mind. You're stubborn but idealistic, and are the type to say "I don't like drama" but the minute something happens you gotta be involved
Aaron Burr: therapy. You need therapy. That man is a mess and you absolutely are as well
Thomas Jefferson: you suffer from chronic horniness syndrome. You also like to stay in your head and imagine fake senerios a lot before going to sleep because your brain is unable do anything else
John Adams: you are the most insufferable person on the planet. You're incredibly stubborn and think you're always right; WWII boy energy and I hate that
James Madison: you're usually keep to yourself but when picked the right way you'll thrash. Cat energy. You also try to find deep meaning in things that aren't there
James Monroe: you are so boring. SO boring. Your personality is the color beige and you probably unironically like the color eggshell
Marquis de Lafayette: black out drunk on the floor at a party type vibe. You'll take an energy drink at like 10 pm and not care about the consequences. You'll sleep when you die
Any British officer: dumb smart person. You've got the skills and the smarts to complete complex tasks, but either lazyness or procrastination sets in before you do it. You also have poor execution on these tasks so it usually ends up coming out wrong
Ben Franklin: you are immature, but can be serious when needed to. You're most likely the type not able to keep friends/relationships around long, always jumping between people
Samuel Adams: like John Adams, you're also insufferable, but you're the life of the party. People want you around but the second you get heated people don't want to hear it. Political science major vibes
King George III: you're fucking insane. You play devils advocate in every argument you partake in, and you bait people into believing your side is right when you don't even know what side you're on
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i-like-old-things · a day ago
Weather with Washington
“Lowering all the forenoon with rain afternoon. Cold and raw again. Wind notherly.”
April 16, 1780
Morristown, New Jersey
The Diaries of George Washington Vol III
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Term Lengths
George Washington: 2865 days
John Adams: 1460 days [average: 2162.5 days]
Thomas Jefferson: 2922 days [avg: 2415.66667]
James Madison: 2922 [2542.25]
James Monroe: 2922 [2618.2]
John Quincy Adams: 1461 [2425.33333]
Andrew Jackson: 2922 [2496.28571]
Martin Van Buren: 1461 [2366.875]
William Henry Harrison: 31 [2107.33333]
John Tyler: 1430 [2039.6]
James K. Polk: 1461 [1987]
Zachary Taylor: 492 [1862.41667]
Millard Fillmore: 969 [1793.69231]
Franklin Pierce: 1461 [1769.92857]
James Buchanan: 1461 [1749.33333]
Abraham Lincoln: 1503 [1733.9375]
Andrew Johnson: 1419 [1715.41177]
Ulysses S. Grant: 2922 [1782.44444]
Rutherford B. Hayes: 1461 [1765.52632]
James A. Garfield: 199 [1737.2]
Chester Alan Arthur: 1262 [1714.57143]
Grover Cleveland: 1461 [1703.04546]
Benjamin Harrison: 1461 [1692.52174]
Grover Cleveland: 1461 [1682.875]
William McKinley: 1654 [1681.72]
Theodore Roosevelt: 2728 [1721.96154]
William Howard Taft: 1461 [1712.29630]
Woodrow Wilson: 2922 [1755.5]
Warren G. Harding: 881 [1725.34483]
Calvin Coolidge: 2041 [1735.86667]
Herbert Hoover: 1461 [1727]
Franklin D. Roosevelt: 4422 [1811.21875]
Harry S. Truman: 2840 [1842.39394]
Dwight D. Eisenhower: 2922 [1874.14706]
John F. Kennedy: 1036 [1850.2]
Lyndon B. Johnson: 1886 [1851.19444]
Richard Nixon: 2027 [1855.94595]
Gerald Ford: 895 [1830.65790]
Jimmy Carter: 1461 [1821.17949]
Ronald Reagan: 2922 [1848.7]
George H.W. Bush: 1461 [1839.24390]
Bill Clinton: 2922 [1865.02381]
George W. Bush: 2922 [1889.60465]
Barack Obama: 2922 [1913.06818]
Donald Trump: 1461 [1903.02222]
Joe Biden: pending
More than 2 terms: 1/46
2 full terms: 12/46
Between 1 and 2 terms: 7/46
1 full term: 15/46
less than 1 term: 10/46
TBD: 1/46
Washington served 2 full terms, but he was sworn in as president two months after he was supposed to start, so his 2865 is less than the full 2922. His immediate successor John Adams served one full term, but because the year 1800 was not a leap year, his 1460 is one short of the regular 1461. William McKinley would have served 2921 days for the same reason had he not been assassinated. 1800 and 1900 were not leap years, but 2000 was, so George W. Bush served a full 2922. Grover Cleveland served two terms, but they are counted separately as single terms here because they were non-consecutive; he served once as the 22nd president and once as the 24th.
As of 2021, the average length of term for the president of the United States is 1903.022 days, or 5.21019 years (5 years, 77 days).
If we graph out term lengths for the first 45 presidents, we can see that, on average, they're lasting longer than before:
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Line of best fit: 10.047036x + 1649.718182 (x = president number)
If we instead look at average term length over time, we'll see that while term length has trended down overall since Washington (the blue line), it has actually been trending up since reaching a local minimum at McKinley:
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Line of best fit: -13.131288x + 2230.558258
If we look only at the presidents since Teddy Roosevelt, we get this:
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Line of best fit: 9.677111x + 1475.141058
We can use this to try and extrapolate for Joe Biden's presidency: if we looked only at the term lengths of his predecessors, we could predict he would serve for 10.047036x46 + 1649.718182 = 2111.88184 days, or 5.78202 years (5 years, 286 days), which is considerably higher than the average of 5.21019.
Looking at how it has changed over time, we would expect the average term length after 46 presidents to be -13.131288x46 + 2230.558258 = 1626.51901 days, which is too far below the actual value to be useful. The actual average was 1903.022222 after 45 presidents, so the only way it could drop to 1626.51901 after 46 would be for Biden to serve for -10816.12554 days. Negative 11 thousand days! Negative 30 years! We'll assume that's highly unlikely, so let's instead look at the figures since Roosevelt. 9.677111x46 + 1475.141058 = 1920.288164 days. For the average to come up from 1903.022222 to 1920.288164 means Biden would be expected to serve 2697.255544 days, a much more reasonable 7.38468 years (7 years, 141 days).
In the first half the presidency, presidents died in office like clockwork. It was so common that people started believing the office was cursed; William Henry Harrison was a general known for slaughtering natives, especially at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, and he became the first president to die in office in 1841. From then on, every single president elected in a year divisible by 20 also died in office; 1840 Harrison, 1860 Lincoln, 1880 Garfield, 1900 McKinley, 1920 Harding, 1940 Roosevelt, 1960 Kennedy. It was known as the Curse of Tippecanoe, or Tecumseh's revenge, and when Ronald Reagan survived his assassination attempt in 1981 people believed he had "broken" the curse. For the record, I don't believe there ever was a real curse, it was just a coincidence that failed to account for Zachary Taylor who was elected in 1848. The only significance the "curse" had was that it meant few presidents survived their full terms, meaning the vice president would assume office and serve out the remainder.
In 1974, Richard Nixon became the first president to leave office early through resignation rather than death, cutting his second term short, leaving Gerald Ford to fill out the last 2 years and some change. Since then, every single president has survived their full terms, and most of them have successfully been re-elected (save for Carter, Bush Sr. and Trump). A president is more likely to be re-elected now than at any other point in American history; the first half saw tons of single-term and partial-term presidents, bringing the average way down before FDR made it spike with 4 terms (of which he served 3 and a month before dying), followed by relatively stable lifespans ever since.
With the introduction of the 22nd Amendment during Truman's presidency, it will be near impossible for any future presidents to serve more than 2 full terms, 8 years, 2922 days. It's still theoretically possible, just extremely unlikely; the amendment says you cannot be elected president more than twice, and if you serve more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected, then you can't be elected more than once. This means that if the president died or resigned 2 years and a day into their term, their VP could serve out the remainder and still be illegible to run for two full terms of their own, for a total of 3652 days (almost 10 years exactly), so the graph will likely asymptote somewhere between 4 and 8 years (closer to 8, as re-election is much more common).
That said, who knows? Maybe we're overdue for an irregular transition and five of the next ten presidents might not make it through their full terms. That would actually be normal for America; the last 50 years of stability have been the outlier. Regularity is irregular here.
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i-like-old-things · a day ago
I just finished another letter from Congress at Princeton: Being the Letters of Charles Thomson and Hannah Thompson June-October 1783 and the shade Charles Thomson threw on Hamilton and Dickinson...his personality is just getting better and better in each letter
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ducktoothcollection · 2 days ago
I was just listening to a lecture from Tamika Nunley about freed Black women and girls in the leadup to the U.S. Civil War, and the professor was talking about the founding of the Miner School in Washington D.C. It was basically founded to get Black girls the education to be politically engaged and effective, and they studied politics and current events and rhetoric and math, and the mayor called the school a "threat to the Union" as in the entire goddamn country just because these kids were learning to pay attention and advocate for themselves!
And we haven't found any record that suggests how these little girls and their teacher dealt with all the hostility they faced (it was a Lot). But they also had art classes and we still have their drawings. They haven't been digitized because Dr. Nunley couldn't get a clear photo, but she said they were lovely drawings and she hopes they made the girls happy! And she mentioned that the girls really liked a field trip they went on to visit a scientist's lab, where they saw demonstrations of like, the physics of air. And I just keep picturing all these little girls, probably all wiggly from wanting to touch the equipment and ask questions, but being careful to be on their Very Best Behavior because they know this is a Big Opportunity that so many powerful people think they shouldn't have, and! it makes me cry dude! I can't learn about history, it makes me cry! how do people make this their life's work!
Anyway, you should all see if you can find the book At the Threshold of Liberty by Tamika Nunley, it covers a lot of really interesting territory and she's a very engaging writer. I think the lecture might have been recorded and I'll try to find it & link it if it gets posted somewhere I have access to.
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original-honeychiles · 2 days ago
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Built with 100% Free Black Slave Labor - who should be the rightful owners ?
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merdeslawoffice · 2 days ago
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This Week In American History: On April 15, 1912 the luxury ocean liner Titanic sunk 400 miles south of Newfoundland, Canada into the North Atlantic Ocean. The ship hit an iceberg two and a half hours before sinking. Of the 2,200 passengers and crew members carried by the Titanic, 1,500 passed away when it sank...READ MORE
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i-like-old-things · 2 days ago
Old vs. New: Towns
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Congress at Princeton: Being the Letters of Charles Thomson to Hannah Thomson June-October 1783
It’s very interesting to me to read old descriptions of places that I’ve seen/visited and compare them to each other and see what’s different.
For example, Princeton. When Congress was located there for a few months in 1783, that area, and most of its surrounding area, was almost completely farmland, with the exception of the school. Now, it’s become very suburban and the town of Princeton itself has become a college town, as well as the home of the Governor of New Jersey.
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Nassau Hall (Courtesy of: Princeton University Art Museum)
Nassau Hall was used by the Continental Congress from June to November of 1783, when the Continental Congress disbanded as a result of the Treaty of Paris. Prior to Congress’ stay, it was used as a barracks for both the Continental and British Armies in 1777.
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Nassau Hall Exterior, 1836 (Courtesy of: Princetonia)
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This is a picture from Communiversity which is a day where local businesses, academies, museums, etc. set up small tents along the streets of Princeton. It was started to encourage the community and the university students to interact. (Courtesy of: Visit Princeton-Mercer)
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Nassau Hall Exterior (Courtesy of: Princeton University Art Museum)
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i-like-old-things · 2 days ago
Weather with Washington
“Cold & raw—Wind very fresh from the Eastward. Weather lowering with appearances of Snow or Rain.”
April 15, 1780
Morristown, New Jersey
The Diaries of George Washington Vol III
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