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5. Inner depth

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) has been on the summit in terms of inner depth. He was the best devotee among the devotees and the best worshipper among the worshippers. He feared Allah so much that his heart almost stopped. He was so sensitive that there were very few times when he did not have tears or he did not shiver; when he was active, he was like a sea; when he was not active, he was like an ocean. 

Inner depth takes place through devotion and worshipping. The one who practiced them best was our Prophet (pbuh). The state of devotion means not to be delighted even if the whole world is given to you and not to feel sorry even if you lose the whole world. That state was at the highest point with the Messenger of Allah. He would not be delighted even as much as someone who found a grain of barley if he were given the whole world. He would not feel sorry even as much as someone who lost a grain of barley if he lost the whole world. He abandoned the world and the worldly things in his heart. However, that abandoning does not mean to abandon the world really because he showed us the most logical and best ways of making a profit.

Our Prophet did not give any importance to the world. Once Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) came to the presence of the Messenger of Allah. Our Prophet was on the mat that he had slept, and there was the impression of the math on his face. There was a piece of processed leather in one part of the room and a small bag with a few handfuls of barley in another part. They were all the things that were available in his room. Hazrat Umar was moved by what he saw and started to weep. When the Messenger of Allah asked him why he was crying, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allah! While the rulers and kings lie in their beds of feather, you (for whom the universe was created) are lying on a dry mat and the mat makes an impression on your face. What I have seen has made me cry.” Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah said to Umar: "O Umar! Do you not want it that the world will belong to them but the hereafter will belong to us?” (Bukhari, “Tafsir”, 21) In another narration, our Prophet says: “What relation have I got with the world? I am like a traveler, a traveler who sits in the shade of a tree for a while and then goes on his journey.” (Tirmidhi, “Zuhd”, 44; İbn Majah, “Zuhd”, 3)

He came to this world with a duty. He brought breaths of revival to people in terms of feelings and thoughts. When his duty ended, he left the world. It is impossible to think that a person who was so disinterested in the world would tend to have some things in the world. He never showed a tendency towards the world and he never deviated from his path….

First, he practiced the things himself that he was going to tell his umma to do and served as an example to his umma in all of his attitudes. As a matter of fact, nobody could lead a life like he did. He was so disciplined and serious in his individual worship. His whole life seemed to be programmed based on worshipping. We should not think of worshipping as only prayers, fasting, etc. He fulfilled everything that he did with a consciousness of worshipping. 

The world wanted to push itself through his heart many times but he always rejected the world. (Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, 2:231) The servants of our century should take the Prophet as an example and reach inner depth, without forgetting the outer conquest along with the inner conquest.

If the soul and the desires of man are left uncontrolled, his tendency to and interest in the world will increase. The world even becomes his ultimate aim and the purpose of his life. However, the following is stated in the Quran: “Short is the enjoyment of this world: the Hereafter is the best for those who do right: never will ye be dealt with unjustly in the very least!” (an-Nisa, 4/77) Then, a believer should try to reach inner depth and he should not ignore preparing for the hereafter. The happy people who are at spirit’s service will always head towards the pleasure of the Creator, humanity and virtue.

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To sum up, we can list the outlines of the philosophies of history summarized above, as follows;

a. Mankind is in a continuous progress towards the final happy end.

b. This progress depends on the fatalistic, irresistible laws of history which are completely independent of man, so a man must, in any case, obey these laws, otherwise he is certain to be eliminated.

c. All the stages, primitive, feudal or capitalistic, through which mankind inevitably pass in the course of time to the final happy end should not be criticised, because mankind have nothing to do other than passing through them.

What is implied concerning the political conditions of time by all such philosophies of history may be this: The present socio-economic and even the political conditions of the world are inevitable, because they were dictated by nature, which decrees that only the able and the powerful can survive. If the laws of history dictated by nature are in favour of the west, the communities that choose to survive must concede to the dominion of the West.

Is it ever possible to approve this while we clearly see that any age contains ‘ages’- while some people are living in the age of electronics in some parts of the world, some others are suffering the conditions of the middle, or even primitive ages, which is equally true also for individuals-and history, rather than moving forward along with a straight line, advances by cycles, and that man is the being who, much more than a plaything of some laws of only nominal, not external, existence, makes history by enjoying free choice. Also, it is not morally, even scientifically and historically, possible to approve the injustices, no matter whenever and under what circumstances they are committed. Further, we have a right to ask those who side with such philosophies of history whether they can concede to the spread of Islam at the expense of Christianity, and why they would prefer to try their hardest and resort to every kind of means to maintain their dominion, rather than leaving everything to the fatalistic laws of history?

Like every other incoherent and false philosophy, the above mentioned philosophies of history did not last long. When the twentieth century came in, the atomic physics had already dethroned the mechanical physics, which resulted in the obsolescence of the gross materialistic and positivistic world-views together with the ever-evolutionist conceptions of history, like the money which is no longer in circulation. The places of such conceptions were taken by the philosophies of history which were anxious about the future of the West and did not put absolute confidence in science and technology.

Of these, according to Danilevsky’s philosophy of history a civilisation is not transformed into another, and no civilisation cannot be saved from dying. A civilisation is the further step of a culture and each culture develops one or more than one values of humanity. The present Western civilisation is based on science. Any civilisation cannot claim superiority over the others in all respects. A people that have reached the stage of civilisation are doomed to collapse after a long period of decline; because of this, the Western civilisation will one day become a thing of the past.

There are many cultures according to Oswald Spengler, a German sociologist whose work The Decline of the West shook the West in the early years of this century. Each great culture is unique and none of them can, as with Danilevsky, claim superiority over the others. A civilisation manifests itself in big cities as the inevitable result of a culture. Over time, the desire for living dies away and women no longer bear children. Faith is replaced by scientific irreligion or dull metaphysics. Any civilisation that has entered upon this stage either gives birth to materialism, love of money, passion for power, sex and class conflict as its fruits, or results in imperialism, and finally collapses. Spengler holds that the present Western civilisation, with all its big cities, railways and skyscrapers, will in a near future, turn into an etnographic museum.

The ideas of Arnold Toynbee can be traced in Ibn Khaldun. A civilisation is, Toynbee maintains, the work of a creative minority in a propitious clime, and it falls into decay as the founding minority lose their charm and become unable to find solutions to new problems. According to Ibn Khaldun, who influenced, to some extent, almost all the philosophers of history in the twentieth century, a civilisation-he calls it ‘Umran-is based on tribal solidarity which is the distinguishing mark of nomadic life. Nomads lead a very simple life and do not know anything of luxury.

Ibn Khaldun also holds that human beings feel an intrinsic need to live together, but, since some people are of an aggressive disposition, co-existence calls for some sanctions. These sanctions are either put by a powerful individual or tribal solidarity determine them naturally. Thus, the need for a common authority results in the establishment of the state.

The social solidarity is, Ibn Khaldun maintains, much stronger in nomadic tribes. If united with religion, it becomes an irresistible power. Nevertheless, as the state is established more firmly, the social solidarity becomes no more needed and, due to the established (settled) living, people indulge in luxury. Luxury dissolves the solidarity and the ruler, in order to strengthen his authority, forms a council and a troop of royal guards. But nothing keeps the state or civilisation from collapse: increasing extravagance, luxury and indulgences of every kind, and heavy taxes bring about the ruin of the civilisation

What distinguishes the Qur’anic concept of history from other philosophies is that, first of all, while philosophers of history or sociologists build their conceptions on the interpretation of past events and present situations, the Qur’an deals with the matter from the perspective of unchanging principles. Second, contrary to the fatalism of all other philosophies, including even Ibn Khaldun’s, the Qur’an lays great emphasis on the free choice and moral conduct of the individual. Although Divine will, emphasised by the Qur’an, could be regarded as, in some respects, the counterpart of the ‘Geist’ in the Hegelian philosophy and of absolute, irresistible laws of history in other philosophies, the Qur’an never denies human free will. God, according to the Qur’an, tests man in this life so that man himself should sow the ‘field’ of the world to harvest in the next life, which is eternal. For this reason the stream of events-successes and failures, victories and defeats, prosperity and decay-all are the occasions which God causes to follow one another for mankind, to the end that the good may be distinguished from the evil. Testing must evidently require that the one who is tested should possess free-will to prefer between what is lawful and unlawful or what is good and bad. Thus, according to the Qur’an, what makes history is not a compelling Divine will, rather it is man’s own choice, the operation of which God Almighty has made a simple condition for the coming into effect of His universal will. If this point is understood well enough, then it will be easy to see how groundless are the Western philosophies of history especially with respect to their conception of ‘inevitable end’.

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Allah calls Himself Al-Jabbaar— The Compeller, The Restorer— on one occasion in the Quran. He is the One who compels all things according to His will. Al-Jabbaar is the Highest One, who irresistibly restores, repairs, and completes all of creation!

The Compeller, The Restorer, The Greatest

Jabbaar comes from the root jeem-baa-raa which points to three main meanings. The first main meaning is to compel and force someone to do something and the second is to be supreme and high. The third main meaning is to repair, to mend, or to restore something.

This root appears ten times in the Quran in one derived form. Examples of this form is jabbaaran (“a tyrant”), bijabbaarin (“ the one to compel”) and jabbaareena (“ of tyrannical strength”).

Linguistically, jabbaar has the structure of intensification. Jaabir points to one who compels or restores and jabeerah is used for a splint, to help broken bones. Al-Jabbaar is the ultimate compeller; whatever He wills happens. He is the highest and the One who fixes the situation for His creation.

Al-Jabbaar Himself says: He is Allah , other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller. [Quran, 59:23]

Three types of jabr

Jabbaar occurs ten times in the Quran, but is only used once for Allah ‘azza wa jall. Nine times jabbaar refers to the people oppressing others and only Allah is al-Jabbaar in a positive sense. His might is in the sense of power; Al-Jabbaar is the One who compels the tyrants, overwhelming them with His power and might.

His might is in the sense of mercy; Al-Jabbaar mends the broken-hearted by restoring peace of mind as well as reward if they are patient. And the heart of Musa’s mother became empty [of all else]. She was about to disclose [the matter concerning] him had We not bound fast her heart that she would be of the believers. [Quran, 28:10] Allah Al-Jabbaar mended her heart and so is He comforting to the oppressed and firm with the unjust; both Fir’awn and the mother of Musa ‘alayhi sallam will deal with Al-Jabbaar. He is the One Who solaces and comforts the oppressed and punishes the tyrants and arrogant.

His might is also in the sense of greatness; Al-Jabbaar is far above His creation, yet close to them, hearing and seeing all they say, do, and even think.

How can you live by this name?

1. Reflect on how Al-Jabbaar compels you.

Al-Jabbaar compels you by creating you in the way He wills you to be. You are compelled to accept your form and shape as well as the beating of your heart, your blood circulation, firing nerve cells, the way your brain works, falling asleep, and waking up. These are all involuntary actions– they are compelled by Allah’s power. Every day, take time to reflect on the way you are made and let it increase you in emaan in the perfect power and might of Al-Jabbaar, Who compels the creation to be as He wishes.

2. Don’t be jabbaar.

The attribute of jabr does not befit people; you are supposed to be an ‘abd (slave) of Al-Jabbaar. Jabbaar is not just tyrant ruler; you can be jabbaar when you harm or hurt other people’s feeling or undermine their authority. Thus does Allah seal over every heart [belonging to] an arrogant tyrant. [Quran, 40:35].

An example is not listening to your parents and hurting them by your words or actions. And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment. Whether one or both of them reach old age [while] with you, say not to them [so much as], “uff,” and do not repel them but speak to them a noble word. [Quran, 17:23]. So never be arrogant.

3. Mend someone’s heart.

If you have oppressed someone, ask for their forgiveness straight away. If you see people suffering, try to talk to them and show them your care. Mend someone’s heart because Al-Jabbaar will mend yours in times of need.

4. Turn to Al-Jabbaar to fix your faults.

Do you feel like you don’t have enough times or skills to accomplish your goals? Never lower your standards; rather raise your faith in Al-Jabbaar to fix your deficiencies, put your life in order, and transform your sins into good deeds! Seek shelter in Him from all your distresses; take this as a general rule in your life.

5. Ask Al-Jabbaar.

The Prophet salallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to say between two prostrations in prayer: O Allah, forgive me, have mercy upon me, guide me, support me, protect me, provide for me and elevate me [Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, At-Tirmidhee] Wajburnee refers to “reform or fix” my affairs.

The Prophet salallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said in prostration and bowing: How perfect He is, The Possessor of total power (jabaroot), sovereignty, magnificence and grandeur [Abu Dawood] Memorize these supplications so you can benefit from them.

O Allah, Al-Jabbaar, we know that You are the One who compels and restores and who is Highest. Mend our hearts when we are distressed and protect us from oppression and from being oppressive to others. Make us obey Your commands willingly, and enable us to reach all our goals which are pleasing to You, ameen!

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Mengagumi manusia jangan sampai berlebihan.

Berlebihan memuji-muji, misalnya.


kelak ketika dia yg dikagumi melakukan sesuatu yang tidak sesuai ekspektasi kita selama ini,

kekaguman itu berbalik menjadi kebencian. Hingga akhirnya kita mencelanya berlebihan tidak peduli celaan itu sudah sangat melampaui batas sekalipun.

Dan juga,

jangan sampai kekaguman itu membuat kita buta hingga tidak peduli apapun yang dilakukannya akan dianggap sebagai suatu kebenaran. Entah dosa sekalipun.

Satu-satunya manusia yang patut dikagumi hingga berlebihan hanyalah Nabi Muhammad Shallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam. Karena segala yang dilakukan beliau adalah tuntunan Allah, bukan berdasarkan hawa nafsunya.

Manusia yang lain hanyalah manusia biasa, yang kadang bisa begitu mengagumkan, namun suatu saat bisa saja menjadi begitu mengerikan.


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STORY IV.Muhammad Khwarazm Shah and the Rafizis of Sabzawar.

Muhammad Shah was the last prince but one of the Khwarazm dynasty of Balkh, to which family both the poet’s mother and grandmother belonged. He was the reigning prince in AD. 1209, the year in which the poet’s father fled from Balkh, and was defeated by Chingiz Khan a year or two later. In one of his campaigns Muhammad Shah captured the city of Sabzawar, in Khorasan, which city as inhabited by Rafizis or rank Shi'as, naturally most obnoxious to a Sunni prince claiming descent from the first Khahif Abu Bakr. After the city was taken the inhabitants came out, and proceeded with all humility to beg their lives, offering to pay any amount of ransom and tribute that he might impose upon them. But the prince replied that he would spare their lives only on one condition, viz., that they produced from Sabzawar a man bearing the name Abu Bakr. They represented to him that it would be impossible to find in the whole city a single man bearing a name so hateful to the Shi'as; but the prince was inexorable, and refused to alter the conditions. So they went and searched all the neighbourhood, and at last found a traveler lying at the roadside at the point of death, who bore the name of Abu Bakr. As he was unable to walk, they placed him on a bier and carried him into the king’s presence. The king reproached them for their contempt and neglect of this pious Sunni, the only true heart amongst them, and reminded them of the saying of the Prophet, “God regards not your outward show and your wealth, but your hearts and your deeds.” In this parable, says the poet, Sabzawar is the world, the poor Sunni the man of God, despised and rejected of men, and the king is God Almighty, who seeks a true heart amongst evil men.

Satan’s snares for mankind.

Thus spake cursed Iblis to the Almighty,

“I want a mighty trap to catch human game withal.”

God gave him gold and silver and troops of horses

Saying, “You can catch my creatures with these.”

Iblis said, “Bravo!” but at the same time hung his lip,

And frowned sourly like a bitter orange.

Then God offered gold and jewels from precious mines

To that laggard in the faith,

Saying, “Take these other traps, O cursed one.”

But Iblis said, “Give me more, O blessed Defender.”

God gave him succulent and sweet and costly wines,

And also store of silken garments.

But Iblis said, “ O Lord, I want more aids than these,

In order to bind men in my twisted rope

So firmly that Thy adorers, who are valiant men

May not, man-like, break my bonds asunder.”

When at last God showed him the beauty of women,

Which bereaves men of reason and self-control,

Then Iblis clapped his hands and began to dance,

Saying, “Give me these; I shall quickly prevail with these!”

This is followed by comments on the text, “Of goodliest fabric we created man, and then brought him down to the lowest of the low, saving those who believe and do the things that are right;” 1 and on the verses,

“If thou goest the road, they will show thee the road;

If thou becomest naught, they will turn thee to being.”


1. Koran xcv. 4.

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