The present tense of the formal polite style in Korean is made by adding
- (스)ㅂ니다. It’s used mainly in formal or public situations such as in the military, in the news, in meetings and lectures.
If the word stem ends in a vowel, it’s followed by -
ㅂ니다 (declarative) or - ㅂ니까 (interrogative).
If the word stem ends in a consonant, it’s followed by - (스)ㅂ니다 (declarative) or - (스)ㅂ니까 (interrogative).
Word stems ending in a vowel:
- 자다 (to sleep) → 잡니다 → 잡니까?
- 예쁘다 (to be pretty) → 예쁩니다 → 예쁩니까?
- 이다 (to be) → 입니다 → 입니까?
- 아니다 (to not be) → 아닙니다 → 아닙니까?
Word stems ending in a consonant:
- 읽다 (to read) → 읽습니다 → 읽습니까?
- 작다 (to be small) → 작습니다 → 작습니까?
- 있다 (to exist) → 있습니다 → 있습니까?
- 없다 (to not exist) → 없습니다 → 없습니까?
A: 학교에 갑니까? = Are you going to school?
B: 네, 학교에 갑니다. = Yes, I’m going to school.
A: 아침을 먹습니까? = Do you eat breakfast?
B: 네, 먹습니다. = Yes, I eat breakfast.