when your buddies kick you out of the clubhouse
Prehistoric Planet Episode 4 - Ice Worlds
This was my favorite episode so far, what with the goofy bandit Ornithomimus, adorable baby Olorotitans, and the awesome Pachyrhinosaurus/Nanuqsaurus standoff. The real star of the show, however, was the Pyromaniac Troodontid.
I'm so soft for the little antarctopelta who found his own cave and slept beneath 'strange living stars'
Antarctopelta — рід динозаврів-анкілозаврів з одним відомим видом, A. oliveroi, який мешкав в Антарктиді в пізньому крейдовому періоді. Це був анкілозавр середнього розміру, що досягав не більше 4 метрів у довжину, і демонстрував характеристики двох різних родин, що ускладнило більш точну класифікацію. Єдиний відомий викопний зразок був виявлений на острові Джеймса Росса в 1986 році,…
Повний текст на сайті "Вимерлий світ":
While some ankylosaurs are famous for their specialized tail clubs, Stegouros elengassen here had something else entirely going on with its rear end.
Known from the late Cretaceous of southern Chile, about 75-72 million years ago, this small ankylosaur was around 1.5m long (~5'), roughly the size of a large dog. It had a proportionally larger head and more slender limbs than most other ankylosaurs, and a pelvis more resembling a stegosaur, but its most distinctive feature was its tail – it had a completely unique never-before-seen type of tail weapon, with a flat "frond-like" structure formed from several pairs of large fused osteoderms making a shape resembling a macuahuitl.
It seems to have been part of a previously unrecognized very early-branching lineage of Gondwanan ankylosaurs – the parankylosaurians – with its closest relatives Antarctopelta and Kunbarrasaurus also included in this new group. And since the tail regions of both of those other species are poorly known, this means they may also have possessed macuahuitls.
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Personally I find it kinda strange that the Antarctopelta in Prehistoric Planet don't have the macuahuitl club that got inferred from Stegouros. An oversight or would juveniles not have had them?
For those who don't know, Stegouros elengassen is a new species of ankylosaur from Chile, named in 2021! It is closely related to the Antarctopelta featured in Prehistoric Planet, and has a completely unique tail weapon made of many sharp plates that's been nicknamed a "macahuitl tail" after its resemblance to the Aztec weapon.
(Art by @alphynix)
To answer your question, Stegouros was literally published exactly six months ago today! Prehistoric Planet was well into production at that point, it's just a case of new research coming out probably after the designs were already finalised! Science Marches On even before the show was out.
Also, given the diversity of ankylosaur tail weaponry it's not necessarily a given that Antarctopelta also had a macahuitl tail. It's a possibility, but it's not certain, especially given there's also no evidence of a macahuitl tail in their other close relative Kunbarrasaurus.
So yeah not so much a mistake or oversight as "this probably wasn't published in time to influence the Antarctopelta design"
Finally got to watch Prehistoric Planet and here are my highlights:
-single dad T. rex
-monosaurus spa day
-weird neck sacs on sauropods for mating display
-quetzlcautlus being a dirty filthy egg cannibal
-slow mo shot of dung plopping and dissolving in water
-tarbosaurus showing up at the oasis and ruining everyone’s vibe
-mononykus being goddamn adorable with a barn owl face
-time for crab
-make love not war tasteful T. Rex softporn
-seriously giant frog eats a baby dinosaur
-ornithomimus with chad hair
-the hadrosaur baby made it out of the river 😭
-angsty antarctopelta leaves his brothers to claim a bioluminescent cave
-pachyrhinosaurs have porcupine quills for some reason
Saturday 4/6/22 - Media Recommendations #34
These past few years have been an exciting time for paleo nerds. The revival of the Jurassic franchise has renewed the public's interest in dinosaurs, and new paleontological discoveries such as the revamping of Spinosaurus, and new understandings of behaviour, integument, and taxonomy are coming out every few months.
But there's this disconnect between what the general public thinks of dinosaurs, and what experts and enthusiasts (like myself) understand. Once upon a time, dinosaur nature documentaries were all the rage. Walking With Dinosaurs was a cultural cornerstone of the turn of the century, but it has been a while since any Dino Doco has had anywhere near the same success.
Fast forward to 2022, and Apple TV presents a BBC series in the style of Planet Earth and Blue Planet, but with dinosaurs, called Prehistoric Planet. And I loved it.
BBC / Jon Favreau / Mike Gunton
Prehistoric Planet is a 5-part nature documentary, each episode about 45 minutes long. Unlike Walking With Dinosaurs, which explored habitats and species across the Mesozoic period, Prehistoric Planet focuses in on the end of the Cretaceous, around 66 million years ago.
Each episode explores biodiversity in a specific type of habitat;
Rather than follow a group of animals in one specific locale, each episode will jump around different locations around the world that match the episode's theme. Episode 2 for example gives an insight into deserts in South America, North Africa, and East Asia. This formula allows the documentary team to discuss various species from all across the world.
There's fantastic variety in the species chosen to focus in each episode. With the dinosaurs, of course they have to discuss mainstream fan favourites like Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, and Velociraptor. But they also discuss species not as well known to the public like Nanuqsaurus, Antarctopelta, and even dinosaurs I hadn't heard of until now, like Zalmoxes.
Something I have seen discussed as somewhat unique to this series, is the spotlight on non-dinosaur animals from this period. Plesiosaurs, frogs, primitive birds, Mosasaurs, Ammonites, and most of all, Pterosaurs. Pterosaurs get a great amount of focus in multiple episodes, and from a variety of groups within Pterosauria; aerial expert Nyctosaurs, impressively decorated Pteranodontids, and the gigantic stalking Azdarchids.
And I can't believe I haven't mentioned it yet, but the documentary is narrated by Sir David Attenborough, and that just ties together the whole package.
As a fan of anything with David Attenborough, this was an immediate sell for me. The tenderness and wonder in David's voice as he details the mundane and exciting of these extinct animals holds your attention firmly.
The special effects used to create the illusion of these animals interacting with their world is stunning; water splashes and flows as animals move through it, snow and sand shifts against them, leaves are brushed aside. It's expertly done.
Every behaviour and design aspect of the dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and the animals they live with is called against direct fossil evidence and further inferred from behaviour and physiology in living animals. Even the most speculative aspects of their design have roots in actual zoology.
Each of the 45 minute episodes are accompanied with a 5 minute behind-the-scenes clip, where palaeontologists who were consulted for the project explain how all decisions made were steeped deeply in real science. These were once living things on this planet, and the way they are depicted, and described by David Attenborough, illustrates this fact.
That last part is probably my favourite aspect of this documentary series, that the dinosaurs and other creatures are treated like animals. They were not blood thirsty monsters that would stop at nothing short of absolute bloodshed. They had families, they would back off if there was too much danger, they were curious about their environment.
It's a shame that dinosaurs have become little more than movie monsters in the eye of today's public, because as Prehistoric Planet shows us, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and all extinct animals were living things, and they were extraordinary.
Credit to tumblr user @bluedaddysgirl for all the gifs used in this post
little antarctopelta's journey
redraw based on the scene from prehistoric planet! love this lil guy
Stegouros elengassen Soto-Acuña et al., 2021 (new genus and species)
(Select bones and schematic skeletal of Stegouros elengassen, from Soto-Acuña et al., 2021)
Meaning of name: Stegouros = roof tail; elengassen = armored beast in Aónik'enk mythology
Age: Late Cretaceous (Campanian–Maastrichtian), between 71.7–74.9 million years ago
Where found: Dorotea Formation, Magallanes, Chile
How much is known: Nearly complete skeleton of one individual.
Notes: Stegouros was an ankylosaur, a group of armored herbivorous dinosaurs. The majority of ankylosaur fossils previously described from the Southern Hemisphere are fairly incomplete, so the nearly complete skeleton known for Stegouros is potentially very informative about the diversity and evolution of southern ankylosaurs.
For an ankylosaur, Stegouros was small (about 2 m in total body length) and its limbs were relatively slender. Its most distinctive feature, however, was a series of large, flattened bony plates that covered the back half of its tail and projected out to the sides. This structure was probably used for fighting off predators and maybe competitors as well, representing a previously unrecognized third type of specialized tail weaponry in armored dinosaurs (after the tail spikes of stegosaurs and the tail club of ankylosaurine ankylosaurs). The describers of Stegouros suggest calling its weapon a macuahuitl, based on a similar-looking Mesoamerican bladed club.
In their analyses, the describers found that Stegouros was probably closely related to other ankylosaurs from the Southern Hemisphere, such as Kunbarrasaurus from the Early Cretaceous of Australia and Antarctopelta from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica. Notably, the tail vertebrae of Antarctopelta share similarities with those of Stegouros, leading the authors to suggest that Antarctopelta may have also had a tail macuahuitl.
Reference: Soto-Acuña, S., A.O. Vargas, J. Kaluza, M.A. Leppe, J.F. Botelho, J. Palma-Liberona, C. Simon-Gutstein, R.A. Fernández, H. Ortiz, V. Milla, B. Aravena, L.M.E. Manríquez, J. Alarcón-Muñoz, J.P. Pino, C. Trevisan, H. Mansilla, L.F. Hinojosa, V. Muñoz-Walther, and D. Rubilar-Rogers. 2021. Bizarre tail weaponry in a transitional ankylosaur from subantarctic Chile. Nature advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-04147-1
Trying to figure out how a tarot deck with the Major Arcana depicting Prehistoric Planet scenes that I almost certainly will never actually make would work out.
0 - The Fool - Hank and his kids swimming. Not only is it the start of the show, but they’re also setting out on a journey into dangers they don’t know anything of.
1 - The Magician - The Troodontid firestarter.
2 - The High Priestess - Secernosaurus finding their way using the stars.
3 - The Empress - The nesting Quetzalcoatlus.
4 - The Emperor - Tarbosaurus coming for a drink as all the herbivores part for them.
5 - The Hierophant - The Pachyrhinosaurus herd standing together against the Nanuqsauruses.
6 - The Lovers - The ammonites mating.
7 - The Chariot - Baby Triceratops managing to find their way out of the dark
8 - Strength - The adult Therizinosaurus smashing the bee hive. Not only is it presented as a mighty giant, but its actions helping the baby Therizinosaurs reach their goal fits the compassion side of the card.
9 - The Hermit - Deinocheirus.
10 - The Wheel of Fortune - The Velociraptor making off with a pterosaur snack while her comrades are left to deal with the pterosaur swarm.
11 - Justice - The Mosasaurus chasing off his rival. It’s one of the more karmic moments in the show.
12 - The Hanged Man - The Tuarangisaurus giving birth as her family defends her. The Tuarangisauruses defending each other was probably the closest thing to a willing sacrifice depicted in the show and the baby does get born in something resembling a Hanged Man pose.
13 - Death - Atrociraptor and Ankylosaurus using the remnants of the forest fire to their advantage.
14 - Temperance - The trickster Barbarodactylus’s success.
15 - The Devil - Ornithomimus stealing from one another’s nests.
16 - The Tower - The fall of the old Dreadnoughtus.
17 - The Star - Antarctopelta finding a winter den under the light of bioluminescence.
18 - The Moon - The Tyrannosaurus rivals to lovers. The entire segment is full of subverted expectations and illusions.
19 - The Sun - The baby Olorotitan’s triumphant return.
20 - Judgement - The female Carnotaurus watching Ron’s dance.
21 - The World - Hatzegopteryx taking off into the sunset at the very end.
Prehistoric Planet is absolutely bullshit!!!!
where the FUCK are my AUSTRALIAN DINOS
fucking kiwis got a fucking plesiosaur and even antarctica got that dumb as bricks antarctopelta and you could have dedicated half of an ENTIRE episode to gondwanan fauna!!! YOU COULD HAVE JUST CHEATED A LIL BIT A FEW MILLION YEARS TO INCLUDE AUSTRALOTITAN FUCK YOU FOR NOT INCLUDING AUSSIE DINOS AND SPENDING 4/5THS OF THAT EPISODE IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE FUCK YOU YOU FUCKING CUNTS
Ultra’s Prehistoric Planet Reviews- Episode 4: Ice Worlds
Welcome back once again to the Prehistoric Planet! So far, we’ve covered mosasaur spas, femboy pterosaurs, and a Deinocheirus taking a crap. What could today’s adventure bring to the table? I’m glad you asked, metaphorically (Despite you never actually asking me in person). For the 4th episode in the series, we’re visiting some of the coldest, higher up places on the Prehistoric Planet, home to volcanos, snow-covered plains and forests, and mountains galore, along with the dinosaurs that live there. Get bundled up now (But skip the whole waiting til’ you get older part), because we’re trekking through the Ice Worlds.
Now, this particular segment might be a bit short, but there are a few things I wanna mention. Aside from a few species not being referred to by their names, this was easily one of the best episodes overall. The showrunner really did a great job with everything, as usual. The list of species used here was also phenomenal; Pacyrhinosaurus, Nanuqsaurus, Dromaeosaurus, Olorotitan, Ornithomimus, even Antarcopelta. This is a mighty fine selection of dinos they got right here.
We begin our tour of this overgrown freezer by checking in on a trio of Dromaeosaurus stalking a herd of Edmontosaurus (Which are referred to as “hadrosaurs”). Mind you, a fully-grown adult can kick one of these feathery pests back in time to kick them back into the future, so the best bet is to go after one of the youngsters. To do this, the raptors spook the herd into going over a freezing rapid. While most of the herd manages to cross the fast-flowing river, there are casualties, something that the raptors are more than happy to clean up after.
We then cut to a colony of Ornithomimus, setting up their nests for the arriving females. Since this species didn’t appear in any of the promotional material for the show, it’s a welcome surprise to see these guys show up. They’re basically giant, angry swans that hiss at each other every time one of them is caught stealing leaves from their nests for their own. It’s silly, but silly is how we roll ‘round here.
Speaking of nests, it’s time to cut to Russia, where we meet Olorotitan, a massive species of hadrosaur that raise their young in volcanic regions. Like all of the species making their debut here, it’s really nice to see these guys pop up, especially if you’ve heard about them in certain books about dinosaurs like I did when I was younger. Getting back to the segment, the hatchlings are surprisingly alright with being near a volcano. What they’re not alright with are an abundance of pesky mosquitos. The adults, being much larger and having more blood in their bodies, only deal with the bugs as annoying pests. It’s the babies who are in danger of getting drained to death, something that even some of the parent will abandon their babies for if they’re too weak to move. Thankfully, the baby we focus on manages to move past the bloodsucking insects and catches up with it family. A rather wholesome note to end this segment on.
Next, we return to the Arctic, where we partake in a bit of Dinosaur Arson. The main star of this segment is a Troodontid (While Troodon itself is now considered a dubious genus, my guess for this particular species might be Stenonychosaurus). Ya know how secretary birds stick around fires to pick off smaller animals trying to escape the flames? This is basically that, but now in the Cretaceous. The Troodontid even looks like a secretary bird for Pete’s sake! Aside from my jokes about this guy potentially being the Maastrichtian version of the Pyro (Just give him a gas mask and a flamethrower, and you’ll be good to go), this scene was really good.
Going from one end of the world and to the other, we meet the tiny Antarctopelta, a southern ankylosaur. The main jist of this segement goes as such; The guy diches his bros to go live in his own territory. That’s a simple plot for the segment, but simple is all you need sometimes. After travelling huge distances, our male eventually finds a cave to sleep in just before the long winter night begins. And, to make things better, he even gets thousands of new roommates in the form of glowworms. They even act like makeshift nightlights while our armored lad sleeps the winter away.
To end this episode off, we return to Alaska one last time to see two ancient rivals partake in their battle; Pachyrhinosaurus vs. Nanuqsaurus. Unlike the reworked version of the Walking with Dinosaurs movie that retooled the Gorgosaurus from the original film as Nanuqsaurus (And also had “Prehistoric Planet” right in the name. Mighty curious coincidence right there), these Nanuqs has a full coat of feathers that help them survive the cold (Even looking just like grey wolves too), while the Pachyrhinosaurus are more like musk oxes. Believe it or not, I was actually rooting for the Nanuqsaurus to make their kill, as I’ve always been of a tyrannosaur guy myself. Along with the Mosasaurus spa, the Mononykus goofing around, and the Quetzalcoatlus mother from the last 3 respective episodes, this is one of my favorite scenes from the show overall, and we just have one more episode left.
We’re nearing the end of our Maastrichtian safari, so join me one last time tomorrow as we enter the Forests of the Prehistoric Planet. And, as a neat way to end off this series, we’ll be looking back on it as l as revisit all 5 of my favorite segments from all 5 episodes. Stay tuned, folks!
Ice Worlds was great, it's at least as good as Coasts.
More great dromaeosaurs from the show, shown waking up after Winter to catch bugs and take advantage of baby Edmontosaurus failing river crossings (just called hadrosaurs here, IDK why).
Liked the ornithomimid segment a lot, seeing them steal foliage from each other was quite a cool thing to see realised, as well as the threat of hadrosaurs eating all their hard work.
Olorotitan was a nice segment. Heard some debate over the logistics of certain things like growth and stuff but getting a detailed look at them was great. Mosquitoes were brutal. Kinda wish they made it clearer we were in Russia but still great.
Seeing the troodont using fire to hunt was definitely a surprise. It didn't seem that complex in its use, but I was still surprised to see a dinosaur do something like this. Also hey, first mammal appearance, even as just food for the troodont, lol.
The Antarctica stuff was probably my big highlight, I love seeing that continent's palaeontology get the spotlight. Nice look into Antarctopelta and a well crafted environment. Also yes, there is evidence hadrosaurs made it to Antarctica.
Loved Pachyrhinosaurus vs Nanuqsaurus too. Great setpiece that used the environment well, and love their designs, especially seeing sexual dimorphism in the male pachys (particularly the brushy quill tails) and a feathery tyrannosaur.
Your artists usually do such an amazing job when it comes to depicting these animals, but that Antarctopelta is making me nauseous. Why is there a tail club on a Nodosaurid? I understand it's a fragmentary taxon, but tail club are literally only found on Ankylosaurine Ankylosaurids. Victoria Arbour discusses this on her blog. (I hope I don't come across as rude, I just want to help out. Keep up the good work!) (ps. Tianyulong for best dinosaur 2016!)
Yeah I know... TBH yesterday Ryuu and I were both really out of it, tired and mental health wise. I didn’t really check the art for accuracy when he sent it to me and I only noticed the mistake after I posted it. Not only should it not have a tail club; but that tail club shouldn’t be bend-y! According to Arbour’s research, Ankylosaurids (the group with clubs) evolved stiffened tails first, clubs second; that way the stiffened tail could hold up the club, and also just be used as a weapon on its own (yeah, a mace is scary, but so is a freaking baseball bat).
But I wish you had sent me this off of anon because honestly I wasn’t really going to say anything to him because, well, I don’t pay my artists enough. We don’t make enough on the patreon to justify me asking him to fix it... So I was just kind of going to let it stay, maybe fix it in the future if we felt like it. But tl;dr we were both out of it yesterday and yeah, he shouldn’t have drawn it with a club, but I also had my chance to point it out (when he first sent the art) and I didn’t, so it’s just as much on me as it is on him, and I can’t ask him to fix it :/
Thoughts on Prehistoric Planet episode 4 - Ice Worlds
(Spoilers under the cut, duh)
No pterosaurs 0/10
I think it’s neat that the hadrosaurs were the connective tissue of this one.
There are a lot of unnamed animals in this one. Those dromaeosaurs for example.
More dead baby dinos ☹️
Ornithomimus 😃 I’m so happy to see it done justice at last! And its segment is so much fun 😆
Olorotitan nesting in the volcano was cool. I also did not expect the baby to survive this time!
The troodontid hunting on the edge of a forest fire had me torn; on the one hand, I love that marabou stork like hunting method and it was nice to finally see some mammals (even if they were just prey fodder), but on the other… why are the troodontids trying to start the fires? It feels very…90s to me. Very “OOOOOH SUPER SMART TROODONS OOOOOH~” and I dunno how to feel about that.
I didn’t expect to get so invested in the Antarctopelta’s story! I was so happy when he managed to find himself a little glowy bachelor pad! And now, when his brothers come up begging him for shelter, he can tell THEM to get lost! The ultimate revenge 😈
The stand-off between the Pachyrhinosaurus and Nanuqsaurus was very tense, but the old bull’s sacrifice must’ve been the deciding factor. I salute you dude. You gave your life for your herd.
I think tomorrow, just in case, I’m gonna binge watch all the previous episodes before watching the final installment!
I think Antarctopelta is new to TV here. The hibernation/winter torpor/whatever you call it bit is, as far as I know, pretty speculative… I’d be interested to know if/what more specific reasoning underlay it…!
A speculative Antarctopelta