Seabird communities have changed significantly 50 million years in the future. The impact that humans caused on the oceans had a major effect on aquatic birds. Seabird diversity decreased at the end of the Quaternary, with some clades such as pelicans and albatrosses going extinct entirely. But by the mid-Telogene, new birds have evolved to fill these niches, and seabird biodiversity is high once again.
Diving-vultures are large and portly birds, with wingspans of up to three meters in large individuals. The genus Dyptogyps ranges along the coasts of South America and western North America. They are characterized by their brightly-colored heads, including throat pouches that take on vivid colorations during the breeding season. As the name implies, these birds are piscivorous, diving for food. Diving-vulture eyes have a thick but transparent nictitating membrane, allowing an individual to see prey and pursue it underwater. Although their ancestors had good senses of smell, diving-vultures lack external nostrils entirely; instead the internal nostrils house salt-removing glands.
(Note: I am not a professional paleontologist or even biologist. I am just and amateur paleoartist and enthusiast. If my infos are off in some way, feel free to correct them ^^)
Gastornis parisiensis (from Greek “Gaston Platé’s Bird”)
- Paleocene to Eocene (56-45 Ma BCE)
- Northern Hemisphere
At the beginning of the Paleogene, until end of the Eocene, the Earth went through an intense greenhouse effect, being virtually without ice for 200,000 years in an event known as “Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum”, covering the entire planet in tropical forests and with an average temperature 8ºC hotter than today. During this period, the birds, the only dinosaurs that survived the mass extinction to the end of the Cretaceous (66 Ma BCE), began to diversify with more intensity, occupying several vacant niches, in the same way as mammals, which would become the new “owners of the world”. Before that, however, several families of birds reigned, as members of the genus Gastornis, present in Europe, China and North America.
A peculiar member of the superorder Galloanserae, which includes pheasants, turkeys, peacocks, chickens, ducks and geese, present since the end of the Cretaceous, Gastornis was a large terrestrial, flightless bird, with an extremely robust body constitution, reaching up to about 2 meters in height and weighing up to 200 kg, being in many locations the largest animal present in the local fauna, which indicates that it could be virtually without predators, taking into account the size of the carnivorous mammals found in the same formations, such as Mesonyx, that was the size of a German shepherd. For a long time it was believed that the Gastornis themselves were the apex predators of their food chains, using their powerful beaks to attack small mammals in the same way that the Terror Birds did in South America. More recent studies, however, indicate that these birds were probably herbivores, without large, predator-like claws on their feet, and using their beaks to open hard seeds and fruits.
Probably the replacement of forests by mosaics from open prairies and woodlands at the end of the Eocene, with sudden drops in temperature, must have contributed to the extinction of this Avian dinosaur, a relic of an older time even in its own time of existence.
50 million years in the future, the majority of cetaceans have become extinct. Cetacean diversity has been in decline since the Miocene, and human persecution has not helped. Only a few lineages of dolphin have made it this far. The extinction of larger whales have left larger predatory niches open, to be filled by descendants of other taxa.
The great sea bear is descended from sea lions. It is completely marine, and is unable to stand on land; the hind feet have formed a semi-fused, flexible fluke. The great sea bear reaches lengths of up to eight meters. It is an apex predator; its diet consists of sharks, seabirds, marine reptiles, large fish and cephalopods, and smaller marine mammals. Sea bears have a distinctly flexible neck, and sometimes kill prey by thrashing it to pieces. Sea bears live solitary, except for mothers and offspring, who may stay together for over a year after birth.
Carcharocles/Otodus megalodon tooth
40 million years in the future
Late Cenozoic - early Telogene period
The earth 40 million years in the future is one that we would still recognize. Most of the continents have moved little in the intervening time. The Caribbean Plate has moved east, removing a chunk of Central America, but the gap was soon filled by the northward movement of South America. Africa has also moved north, closing off the Mediterranean Sea. The Somali Plate has moved eastward, creating the continent of East Africa. Australia has moved slightly northward of its modern position too, and low sea levels afford a land bridge connecting it to Afro-Eurasia.
Over the past 40 million years, natural forces have countered most of anthropogenic global warming. The same factors that led to the formation of the first Cenozoic ice age have led to the genesis of the second; Antarctica still remains at the South Pole, and the rise of the Mediterranean Mountains provides surfaces for carbon to weather into the earth. Large polar ice caps have formed; this map displays their maximum extent in the latter half of the Cenozoic. Tropical forests are not as widespread as they once were, being replaced by tropical grasslands.
[Maps of the future may be subject to adjustments.]
Hyaenodon was a curious carnivore who lived from the late Eocene to mid Miocene. Its “self-sharpening” teeth must have made it a fierce predator to encounter in the cenozoic landscape— this one is just having a rest out of the sun.
my Phanerozoic symbols of Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic
the animals i chose for these 3 emblems are
Dimetrodon for Paleozoic
Tyrannosaurus Rex for Mesozoic
Woolly Mammoth for Cenozoic
Name: Livyatan (Leviathan).
Named By: Lambert et al. - 2010.
Classification: Chordata, Mammalia, Cetacea, Physeteroidea.
Size: Skull is 3 meters long. Total size estimates vary between 13.5 and 17.5 meters long.
Known locations: Peru - Pisco Formation.
Time period: Serravallian stage of the Miocene of the Neogene.
Fossil representation: Partial preserved skull, mandible (lower jaw) and teeth.
Name: Entelodon (Perfect teeth).
Named By: Aymard - 1846.
Classification: Chordata, Mammalia, Arctiodactyla, Entelodontidae.
Size: Around 3 meters long.
Known locations: Across Eurasia.
Time period: Bartonian of the Eocene through to Rupelian of the Oligocene.
Fossil representation: Many specimens.
As someone who loves animals I’m glad paleontology is a thing. Like I can look up absolutely everything there is about modern animals , and after I’m done it’s like yoooo there are even more animals let’s Google stuff about pachyrhinosaurus!!!