#design history
vignellicenter · 4 months ago
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Remembering Alan Heller 
When Alan Heller launched his company Heller Inc., his first product was a stacking dishware set designed by Massimo Vignelli, which Alan saw at a museum and sought out Massimo to get it back in production. This launched a nearly 40-year collaboration in graphics, products, showrooms, and furniture.
Alan visited the Vignelli Center on a few occasions. In 2016, we invited him [AGAIN, once was not enough] to speak in our Design Conversations lecture series.  You can watch the recording: https://youtu.be/DergmzHJax8  
On that visit, he also spent many hours in the archives combing through the 100s of Heller artifacts saved by the Vignellis. Alan was very pleased that we were preserving so much of Heller’s history. And, if you knew Alan, you know that he could tell a great story, with lots of humor, and probably a few expletives. 
 Although it won’t be the last time that we highlight Heller work from the archives, enjoy a few Vignelli-designed artifacts, including: the first stacking dishware set in 1971 (named Max for Massimo’s nickname), the infamous Heller rainbow dishware, Lella’s glass bakeware, and some recent graphics and showrooms. Take this brief tour of the collaboration between this design power couple and a design visionary who made “Good Design at Affordable Prices.”
Rest in Peace Alan Heller. You will be missed but your impact on design will never be forgotten. 
See more Heller artifacts from the archives: https://artsandculture.google.com/search?q=vignelli%20heller 
 Alan Heller’s own design work, Ergo Ergo, is part of the Product Timecapsule in our Special Collections: https://www.rit.edu/vignellicenter/product-timecapsule/heller-ergoergo
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detroitlib · 2 months ago
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Thomas Maitland Cleland (August 18, 1880 – November 9, 1964) American book designer, painter, illustrator, and type designer.
The new Cadillac in which the modern trend of the motor car is embodied in a rich variety of luxurious distinguished models / Cadillac Motor Car Company ; designed and illustrated by T.M. Cleland ; prepared and printed by Evans-Winter-Hebb Inc. Cover title: Cadillac, 1928
Courtesy of the National Automotive History Collection, Detroit Public Library
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carsthatnevermadeitetc · 6 months ago
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Jaguar Select Edition Racing E-Type Roadster, 2003 (1962). A series 1 E-type prepared for historic racing by Massachusetts-based Donovan Motorcar Services for Jaguar North America.
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germanpostwarmodern · a month ago
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In most surveys of 20th century design Gerrit Rietveld solely appears through his Red and Blue Chair, the painted version of a design originally conceived around 1918. Naturally there is more to Rietveld’s furniture design that he, as a trained carpenter, advanced until his very death in 1964 and which comprises more than 370 designs. An exquisite reference to Rietveld’s furniture is Paul Vöge’s „The Complete Rietveld Furniture“, published in 1993 by 010 Publishers, a complete catalogue of all of his movable works conceived between 1900 and the mid-1960s. Through extensive archival research Vöge was able to compile a comprehensively illustrated and annotated catalogue raisonné that quite plainly shows what Paul Overy explains in his introduction to the book: in Rietveld’s furniture design there were certain periods of intense activity characterized by the simultaneous development of experimental pieces and more regular works designed for particular commissions and larger quantities with the latter taking precedence in his later years. But as Paul Vöge demonstrates this did not happen at the expense of originality: rather than perfecting older ideas Rietveld came up with new ideas or took existing designs into new directions, a modus operandi likely eyed by industrial designers but one that signifies Rietveld’s curious spirit.
Through the juxtaposition of photos and design drawings and sketches Vöge’s catalogue is a wonderful sourcebook that allows for a uniquely through perspective at Gerrit Rietveld’s furniture designs, his inventive character and which at the same time unearths rarely, if ever, seen pieces. Unfortunately the book has become quite a rarity and antiquarian prices have steeply increased…
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biscuitsarenice · 3 months ago
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1940′s kitchen
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radiomuseum · 10 days ago
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1960s Waukesha Avalon hotel playing cards, sold in the hotel's gift shop.
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nemfrog · a year ago
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Fig. 2. Characteristic Hepplewhite Chairback Shapes. The practical book of period furniture. 1914.
Internet Archive
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crapfutures · 2 months ago
Superlative objects and technological dreams
Thanks for tuning in - it’s been a while. 
Since the last post Crap Futures has left the island of Madeira, it seems, for good: Julian to Breda in the Netherlands and James to Paris. Shifting from the vast expanse of the quinta overlooking the open Atlantic to confinement in our small urban apartments under numerous lockdowns may have stymied our ability to write … but finally here we are. The following words emerged from a rejected conference paper (where all good ideas are born) and aim to provide another analysis on the state of the design industry today.
What follows is a (very) potted Western history of the designed object, or more specifically the superlative object - and an argument that the placing of such high cultural value on the object allows the systems and resources behind its realisation (the means) to be largely taken for granted.
This elision gives mainstream design an enormous advantage over alternative approaches, as all the available methods and means - global resources, neo-liberal labour practices, highly sophisticated manufacturing and marketing methods, intricate supply chains and the latest technological advances - can be exploited to achieve the celebrated end. How can more ethical or ecological design processes compete - when only the end product, the superlative object, is valued?
What do these terms mean? Let’s take a closer look.
The superlative object
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In Mythologies Roland Barthes introduced the notion of the superlative object through the example of the Citroën DS. Cars, he argues, ‘are almost the exact equivalent of the great Gothic cathedrals: I mean the supreme creation of an era, conceived with passion by unknown artists’. Commenting on the seamless perfection of the vehicle, he compares it to the ‘unbroken metal’ of science-fiction spaceships and even to the smooth and seamless robes worn by Christ. Barthes’ emphatic words anticipate the status objects of today. Seams, he argues, reveal the hand of the (human) maker, therefore suggesting that the DS is beyond human – an immaculate conception.
Our history of the superlative object begins in France during the 19th Century. Redgrave’s Manual of Design from1890 provides a rigorous examination of the superlative objects of the period, tracing their origins back to the establishment of the ‘royal manufactories, the tapestry and furniture works of the Gobelins, Beauvais, and Aubusson ... in these works the most skilled workmen, aided by the most scientific men of the age, executed the designs of the first artists of France’ (p. 4). Redgrave’s manual and the essays of his father that preceded it were largely written in response to the great exhibitions of the mid-19th Century, in London (1851) and Paris (1855). The original intention of the French exhibition was to honour the prototype builders - designers, craftsmen, and workers - through the various displays in the Palais de l’Industrie (Poisson, 2005). Whilst these displays were ‘often products of an impeccable, at times even virtuosic technique, they nevertheless formed part of an occasionally redundant, profoundly eclectic and overabundant decor ... which had been misappropriated in the name of ornament worship’ (p. 4). 
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This analysis of the superlative object is supported by Redgrave who is even more damning of the French tendency towards the meretricious: ‘the world is still deceived with ornament’, he suggests, ‘and led astray by pretentious display, instead of advancing in the road to real excellence’. 
The Arts and Crafts movement emerged from an attempt to reform design and decoration in mid-19th century Britain. It was a reaction to the pretentious displays seen in the great exhibitions of the period. Redgrave insisted that ‘style’ demanded sound construction before ornamentation, and a proper awareness of the quality of materials used. ‘Utility must have precedence over ornamentation' (p. 15). 
Machines and making
In the late 19th Century debate began to grow about the relationship between designing and making. For some key figures in the Arts and Crafts such as John Ruskin and Walter Crane, the making of an object should happen totally under the hand of the designer, while others (including Morris) believed that mechanisation was not negative in itself, and machines used well could improve the quality of the designed object.
This argument was played out in a discussion between Crane and the early industrial designer Lewis F. Day: 
W.C. ... I presume you would admit that a designer is all the better for a first-hand acquaintance with the conditions, necessities and limitations of the work for which he is designing. L.F.D. Certainly; but it doesn't follow in the least that he should execute his design with his own hand. W.C. How then would a designer obtain his first-hand acquaintance with a method or material unless he had actually worked out his own design in that method or material?
This was perhaps the last true period when designed means and ends existed in an unbroken continuum; when design was considered as a social justice movement as much as an aesthetic one. The last line from Lewis F. Day is quite remarkable when viewed from today’s perspective - that a designer would do all that he designs.
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This brief history will now move across the Atlantic because the version of design developed there during the 1930s, in many ways, represent the true genesis of the version of design that dominates today.
Building on the ideas of the more progressive members of the Arts and Crafts movement, the ex-set designer Norman Bel Geddes described an approach to design that completely incorporated the manufacturing process, advocating that the designer should ‘visit the client’s factory and determine the capacity and limitations of the machines and workers’.
As the century progressed the capacity grew exponentially whilst the limitations of the workers were increasingly bypassed by sophisticated machinery and automation.
Industry and spectacle
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Bel Geddes was also one of the pioneers of the influential movement Streamline Moderne. Here he describes the potential elevation of the industrial object to the superlative:
When automobiles, railway cars, airships, steamships or other objects of an industrial nature stimulate you in the same way that you are stimulated when you look at the Parthenon, at the windows of Chartres, at the Moses of Michelangelo, or at the frescoes of Giotto, you will then have every right to speak of them as works of art. Just as surely as the artists of the fourteenth century are remembered by their cathedrals, so will those of the twentieth be remembered for their factories and the products of these factories.
The invention of the internal combustion engine at the beginning of the century had transformed the way Americans moved around, but by the mid-1920s the US car industry had reached saturation point. Alfred Sloan, the boss of General Motors, came up with a plan to keep people buying new cars. He introduced annual cosmetic design changes to convince car owners to buy replacements each year. The cars themselves changed relatively little in their essence, but they looked different.
This created the new role of the consumer - and with it the growth of public relations and advertising. As Bel Geddes suggested in 1932: ‘the artist’s contribution touches upon that most important of all phases - entering into selling the psychological. He appeals to the consumer’s vanity and plays upon his imagination, and gives him something he does not tire of’. Cars became symbols of progress and objects of status. J. G. Ballard provides a wonderful cultural critique on this subject:
Towards the end of the 20th Century (in The Society of the Spectacle) Guy Debord stated that: ‘in societies dominated by modern conditions of production, life is presented as an immense accumulation of spectacles. Everything that was directly lived has receded into a representation.’
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It is impossible, for example, to separate an Apple iPhone from the brand, its marketing, and the global fanfare that surrounds the launch of a new Apple product. This focus on seamless design, on the spectacle, on the superlative object, has (to paraphrase Albert Borgmann), resulted in a dramatic dislocation of ends from means. Highly emotive and susceptible personal value systems, such as a perceived enhancement of status, place an almost total emphasis on the end, allowing the means to be reduced to whatever it takes to facilitate its existence.
Problematic means to superlative ends
We’ll conclude with 5 key examples of problematic means hidden behind the thick facade of the superlative object.
1. The verb to design has become increasingly separated from the verb to make. As a consequence the practice of planning has become reduced to moving shapes around on a screen, whilst the arranging of (physical) elements happens in increasingly complex technical systems. Design is dislocated from making.
The designers of today’s superlative objects follow both Morris and Bel Geddes’s lead in that they remain obsessively connected to the manufacturing process. However, the complexity and expense of the machines that do the making have grown exponentially.
In a 2012 video (above) showing the manufacturing process of the iPhone 5, Jony Ive states the Apple belief that ‘going to such extreme lengths is the only way that we can deliver this level of quality’. Whilst Apple’s approach clearly leads to the elevated status of their products, the machinery at their disposal gives them an enormous advantage over those with more humble tools.
2. The material elements used in contemporary designed artefacts (e.g. rare earth elements) have become increasingly global and out of reach of the individual.
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In this case we can trace the origins of the designer’s use of elements back to the colonial era. Arthur Chandler notes that at the time of the 1855 World’s Fair, ‘the French attitude is a mixture of pure greed and the dawning sense of the “civilizing mission” of France: Africa will supply the raw materials; and in return, France will supply the most precious of all commodities: French civilization’.
Turning again to the iPhone, it comprises 75 of 118 elements from the periodic table (the human body is made up of around 30). In a 2017 article for the Los Angeles Times Brian Merchant described the pulverising of an iPhone and then analysing the resulting dust using mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence and infrared analysis. He suggests that to obtain the 100 or so grams of minerals found in a single iPhone, miners around the world have to dig, dynamite, chip and process their way through about 75 pounds of rock on nearly every continent. Very little has changed!
3. The functional purpose of contemporary designed artefacts has become increasingly dependent on global infrastructure systems, thus perpetuating established power structures.
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In A History of the Future (2008), Donna Goodman describes how the invention of electricity was instrumental in laying the groundwork for the coming machine age. By the 1940s 90% of American homes were connected to the electricity grid. This in turn led to many new domestic products - all electrically standardised via the sockets they plugged into and all dependent on the infrastructure.
Contemporary products today are reliant on far more complex systems than the electricity grid; for example, the GPS system on mobile phones is owned by the US Government and operated by the United States Air Force. Anything from thermostats (e.g. Nest) to vehicles are increasingly becoming reliant on, and controlled by, connection to the internet. The design of almost all modern products is constrained by the reliance on infrastructure.
4. The aesthetic purpose of contemporary designed artefacts has become deeply entwined with the manipulation of human desires via increasingly sophisticated marketing practices.
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This is not a new practice. In 1890 Richard Redgrave likened the French Goods at the 1855 Paris Exhibition to the ‘gilded cakes in the booths of our country fairs, no longer for use, but to attract customers’. In Objects of Desire (1986), Adrian Forty affirms that for a product to be successful it must incorporate the ideas that will make it marketable.
This results in manufacturing goods ‘embodying innumerable myths about the world, myths which in time come to seem as real as the products in which they are embedded’. How then to re-separate the object from its image? Or to see through the image to what it really stands for?
Even the more respectable elements of the media fall prey to design’s sleight of hand - this is from an article in the New York Times in 2016: 
‘There has been zero innovation in this market for over 60 years,’ said Mr. Dyson, 68, a billionaire who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2006. ... Mr. Dyson, Britain’s best-known living inventor, is the Steve Jobs of domestic appliances. He has built a fortune from making otherwise standard products seem aesthetically desirable ... Dyson said there were 103 engineers involved in the creation of the Supersonic, which included the taming of over 1,010 miles of human hair tresses and 7,000 acoustic tests as teams tackled three core issues: noise, weight and speed. ... As a result, the Supersonic will retail at $399 when it arrives in the United States in September.
5. The plans for designing contemporary artefacts are typically iterative in nature. This facilitates and maintains the current approach to economic growth via generational products.
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We raised the constraint of future nudge in one of our early posts - here’s a slightly updated explanation: According to the economist Robert Heilbroner, ‘All inventions and innovations ... appear essentially incremental, evolutionary. If nature makes no sudden leaps, neither, it would appear, does technology.’ And as a consequence neither do technological products.
This limits the designer to developing only what the current product could realistically evolve into. In reality it is a mechanism, employed by corporations - to maintain lucrative generational economic models, extend the life of production lines, pander to conservative tastes through risk-avoidance, facilitate rapid object obsolescence, and encourage various forms of brand loyalty.
There is nothing to suggest, however, that the decisions made many product generations ago were the ideal ones. Whilst natural organisms cannot be freed from their genealogical lineages, technological artefacts certainly can.
Next post: Towards appropriate means
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zaraillustrates · 10 months ago
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Ephemerama! is a design history project I started on Instagram back in 2018. I can’t recall ever mentioning it here though, so here’s an obligatory shout-out. Over at Ephemerama!, I have been acquiring, researching and archiving a mid-20th century history of commercial art in ephemeral print (read: losing all sense of time searching auction sites, pretending to be Sherlock while flicking through old design annuals). This compulsive behaviour has been going on to some degree for well over a decade now and seems to be turning into a substantial collection. Or as my husband likes to call it, “a very disappointing inheritance for our children”. So please join me and a quite frankly baffling number of others at instagram.com/ephemeramablog to share the joy. 
A very specific category of design nerd joy.
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thoughtportal · 5 months ago
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vignellicenter · 9 months ago
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Archives mystery: Skandia [Scandia], 1969.
This Friday we only have questions, and no answers.  We only have the name “Skandia” and the year “1969.”
We found these vintage 35mm slides in the Vignelli archives filed under “s” in the slide binders from the Vignelli office. 
Did we just find an unknown Vignelli design? Was this by Lella Vignelli? By Massimo Vignelli? Or is this a Vignelli collaboration? What is this place? Where is this place? Is it just us or could these pictures have been taken today? 
If you remember this project, this company, or who worked on this design, let us know! We have questions! 
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professorpski · 10 months ago
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The Great Side Placket Experiment
Often when a 1930s blouse or dress pulled on over the head, side placket openings were used to make possible a fitted silhouette at the waist. They also removed the necessity of a row of buttons marching up the center of a blouse thus free it for all kinds of design options.
These plackets were sewn by binding both cut edges, often with one long piece of fabric, using machine sewing and then hand stitching finished the placket and added snaps. In an attempt to save time, I tried some experiments. I tried the premade snap tape which you see in the pale blouse on the left, and premade hook and eye tape which you see on the striped blouse on the right. Neither was was flexible as a fabric placket which you see in the middle on the print blouse.
And I learned to place the fabric binding piece slightly off grain as the fabric seam at the side of of a fitted blouse is always slightly off grain too. This allows you to attach the placket more easily with little disruption to the line of the blouse. Some vintage blouse pattern suggest that plackets shut at the bottom hemline, and some do not. I think shutting is better if you can still pull the blouse on. You are less likely to misalign the first set of snaps when you are donning the blouse, only to realize your mistake 2 snaps later and have to start all over again. And it makes for a smoother hemline.
Zippers would be suggested for side plackets especially later on in the 1940s and 1950s, but their stiffness is not always suited to the garment design. So I find myself loyal to the snap placket.
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carsthatnevermadeitetc · 10 months ago
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What a difference 171 years makes juxtaposition of Peugeot emblem, 1850 & Peugeot emblem, 2021. It is only the 11th update to Peugeot’s lion brand since 1850. What is interesting about it is the similarity to their 1960s logo (as seen on the 404 cabriolet & coupé brochure) which was the last time the roaring lion’s head appeared inside a coat of arms. The new logo has been created by the Peugeot Design Lab
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germanpostwarmodern · 8 months ago
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As one of Italy’s most significant architect and designer Gio Ponti deserved nothing less than the present behemoth of a monograph: comprosing roughly 600 pages, weighing in at about 6 kilos and published by the one publisher notorious for its heavyweight books, namely Taschen, it is the most massive display of Ponti’s ingenious creativity. The book contains a chronological catalogue of 136 works, ranging from his early houses over the foundation of Domus magazine and first design works to his late churches and the Denver Art Museum. Each project is documented in comprehensive photo spreads, drawings and plans that not only transport very plastic spatial impressions but are also crisply reproduced feasts for the eye emanating from the Ponti archives. In between the projects a number of essays address various aspects of Gio Ponti’s career that range from his design philosophy, his criticism of industrial design to the unique climate of 1950s Milan. They provide additional and necessary context for Ponti’s overabundant creativity and also trace the origins of his approach towards architecture, design, lifestyle and spatial experience, an approach likening that of a Gesamtkunstwerk or total work of art. The latter is also what continues to resound from reading and browsing the book: Gio Ponti ingeniously combined and adjusted all aspects of a building, a room or just an interior to make it an experience of joy and beauty that also exerts a playfulness quite rare in the history of modern architecture. The present volume surely isn’t the most handy book about Gio Ponti but undoubtedly the most beautiful and visually stunning monograph ever published about him. I am swept off my feet!
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speakspeak · 7 months ago
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radiomuseum · 11 months ago
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Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Tea Bowl, patten 53, made in 1796
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jakobbach · 6 months ago
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Kateřina Přidalová: What is Design? ( Co je vlastně design?) The book deals with a large field of design and its context; it aims at readers starting with the age of 12. UMPRUM 2021 illustration: Jakub Bachorík
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woosohn · 5 months ago
1, 9 and 12 esp 12 cause i download new fonts every time i make smth and that process alone can take hours
 24 . out of sheer curiosity .
send me a number: ask a graphic / gif maker
1. how did you get into graphics / gif making?
for gfx: it was for my mom’s restaurant lmao i think that was back in like 4th or 5th grade? she used to have my uncle design tarps and stuff for her, and one time he came over and installed ps cs2 on our family desktop (rmb the time when everyone shared the same pc nd it was in the living room... or was that just our family) and i was watching him and he taught me a few stuff - specifically how to make text and use color overlay and stroke JFDKA after that it was just a lot of playing around by myself. 
i was horrible, i mean design-wise i cannot stand now what i used to make then!!! but my family and everyone at school was amazed bc no one else had or used ps and they thought i was some kind of tech genius bc everyone else was using picmonkey or smth LMFAO. i became the default designer for my mom’s business and all school projects SDJAK but there were 2 points where i was forced to refine my style:
my school registered me for a digital design competition in 7th grade. that mentally scarred me DJASDK WE WERE UP AGAINST I.T. SPECIALIZED SCHOOLS idk what we were thinking. got 3rd place but is2g i thought my product was so bad the top 2′s looked so clean and professional that i vowed to get better JDSDAK and that’s how i started getting rly picky with design
i started leaning towards illustrations (and using ai over ps) for a contemporary arts class in 9th grade bc i was being an obnoxious little shit wt my teacher nd ended up bluffing that i knew what illustrator was and that i used it often. so for our next output i had to learn how to use it within a few days and man. that was another mental scar HJDSFKS but! kinda glad it happened bc ai was my bread and butter for a looong time! i could wax poetic abt how much i love vector designing but this is getting way too long HJDKS
for gif-making: i started animating shortly after switching to illustrations in 9th grade, and weirdly enough it was never for video output?! it was always either for gifs or slide presentations. i started out making them in ppt, then i forced myself to learn after effects (for the same contemp art class lmao GOD I GAVE MYSELF SO MUCH HELL FOR THAT MINOR). but it was only quite recently (this year! with this blog!) that i got good at giffing non-illustrations, like actual video footages and it was for tumblr lol. i used to think they looked so bad and lq compared to when i animated illustrations, but then i finally got the patience to get vps and i’ve been obsessed since then lol
9. your least favorite graphic created by yourself
my deobirev bias motion gfx. FKJDS i don’t hate it, it was just the most rushed of them all and you can see how i just winged this bc it’s just. one giant gif. fksdjaSK and i defaulted to my “safe” animation style (the blobs/liquid movement). but yeah i do like it i think it’s cool! it just could’ve been better
12. font(s) you like using
oh man you asked the wrong person bc i, too, download new ones every time. HJSKA uhhh ig one font that has withstood the test of time for me (lol) is anitype journal. i don’t get to use it that much bc it’s a v distinct handwritten look, so it has easy recall if reused (it’s actually in that eric bias gfx! so i won’t use it for another 2 years ig DJADKS) but i love that the typeface has 4 different fonts and it’s just. rly cute okay HAHAH as for more ~editorial~ looking fonts that might be more up your alley, there’s the typeface i used for @tbzinc 's branding called ivy mode! for more basic non serif texts i default to the gotham typeface. for gif-making captions it’s always either calibri or arial rounded. what else uhhh my watermark is pixel maz DJSAD
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mandersjohn · 7 months ago
The Chinese invent movable type
The Chinese invent movable type
If you’re printing something with words, like a poster or an announcement or 95 Theses, every letter of every word needs to be carved out of your wood or linoleum block. Carving blocks for pages of an entire book is a king-sized headache. Way over in China in the ad 1000s, printers got tired of having to carve every stinkin’ character on a block. One printer, Bi Sheng, thought: “Why not make…
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vignellicenter · 2 months ago
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For over three decades, Lella Vignelli designed dozens products in silver. Italian silver specialist San Lorenzo Silver produced many projects with Lella such as her numerous jewelry pieces and, in collaboration with her husband and partner Massimo Vignelli, their Bar Set (1971), Bar Tools (1972), and the Liturgical objects for Saint Peter's Church (1976) to name just a few. 
We often find unexpected or unusual items in the archives and this long scroll for San Lorenzo certainly fits that description! Although this object is a bit of mystery, it does seem to be from the 1970s and lists the designers that helped launch San Lorenzo in 1971.
On San Lorenzo’s website you can see a photograph of their first shop which featured a long narrow window which this scroll might fit quite nicely?
It is made of a thin clear plastic with black ink printed on it featuring a photo and name of each designer. The scroll has a white painted 2-inch dowel on each end and is about 1.5 feet wide and about 8 feet long. Although showing some warping, the plastic is in excellent condition!
Scroll Text: 
Argenti disegnati 
daah Franco Albini Franca Helg
mlb Maria Luisa Belgiojoso
ap Antonio Piva
ats Afra e Tobia Scarpa
lmv Lella and Massimo Vignelli
See more silver designs on our Pinterest board “Ooh! Shiny!” https://pin.it/1NSE9Lk 
Stay tuned as we’ll be highlighting more of Lella Vignelli’s work from the archives on future #WomenCrushWednesday!
You can see more of Lella’s work in “Designed by: Lella Vignelli” a free PDF book available to read and download on our website: https://www.rit.edu/.../documents/Designed%20by%20Lella.pdf 
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