It has now been more than 70 years since F1 first started and with growth in engine technology, the rules on the power units f an F1 car have become quite strict giving aerodynamics engineers a lot to play around to improve the performance of the car. Today we’ll be looking at the aerodynamics in an F1 car. Topics that I’ll be covering today:
1. Downforce and the ground effect
2. Front wing
3. Rear Wing
Lift is generated in an aircraft by accelerating the air above the wings and thus creating a low pressure area above the wing and creating an area of slow moving air below the wing creating a high pressure area. This imbalance in pressure creates lift. A F1 car works on the exact opposite principle and is essentially an inverted wing. A F1 car tries to create a low pressure region below the car and a high pressure region above the car to increase the downforce. Now, you must be wondering that why is downforce given so much importance rather than reducing the drag force? Increasing the downforce improves the stability of the car and keeps it closer to the ground thus increasing its speed and traction around corners.
Fdown = 0.5DClAV²
Where, D= density of air
Cl=Coefficient of lift
V= velocity of object
So, a F1 car at 100mph will produce roughly 750kg of downforce. Interestingly, lower weight limit of a F1 car is 743kg so you could in theory drive the car upside down.
Ground effect – where the pressure of air under the car is lower than the pressure above the car, creating a sucking effect that pushes the car to the ground.
The front wing is a very important aerodynamic device in a F1 car. It has 2 main purposes, first to generate downforce and second to manipulate the flow to the rest of the car by controlling the vortices over and under the vehicle.
Endplates are one of the most important aspects of the front wing. They control the flow of air around the Formula One car by redirecting the airflow around the tires. This minimizes the overall drag resistance produced and facilitates the airflow to continue back to the side pods and the car floor. In addition, the tips of the front wings coincide with the ends of the tires. This creates unnecessary turbulence in front of the wheels and increases drag. Hence, the inside edges of the end plates are curved to ensure that the air flows around the tires.
(IMAGE SOURCE- https://www.simscale.com/)
F1 front wings are sharply pointed and fine edged, to promote the creation of turbulent vortices, which the cascade elements direct underneath the floor of the car. Designers want to create vortices that they can control, but without endplates, both on the front wing and rear wing, uncontrollable vortices are produced, which add to the drag coefficient of the car but don’t increase downforce production, so are undesired. The fast moving vortices now travelling underneath the car are of higher speed and lower pressure than the air going over the car, thus increasing the downforce-ground effect.
The rear wing is among the most regulated aerodynamic device of a Formula One car. Teams will have track specific rear wings depending on how much downforce is required on a particular track. The FIA allows a span of 101cm for the rear wing and an additional 5cm for each of the endplates. The end of the rear wings is designed and finished within these 5 cm on either side. The rear wing has to be 35cm in front of the rear tip of the car and have to be 22 or less cm deep.
The rear wing of a F1 has the aim to generate downforce to counterbalance the downforce produced by the front assembly. In fact, the force distribution alongside the vehicle determines the overall balance of a car. The rear wing of a F1 generates about ~10% less downforce than the front wing. The rear wing works quite differently than the front wing as it can’t exploit ground effect and work with disturbed flow.
(Airflow over the rear wing. Source- https://www.presticebdt.com/the-aerodynamics-of-f1-rear-wing-cfd-explained/)
1. A main plane: the thicker profile of the rear wing assembly. This part remains fixed when DRS is open.
2. the smaller profile which acts as a slotted flap increasing downforce and preventing flow detachment. This part is moved and opened by the DRS system.
3. Middle trim: this part of the endplate, is sometimes trimmed in order to better drive the flow coming from the wheels and the bodywork.
4. Bottom trim/louvers: These louvers located in the lower part of the endplates are designed to work efficiently with the rear diffuser and exhaust gas.
DRS stands for drag reduction system, it was introduced in f1 in 2011 in order to improve overtaking. It is a device that allows the reduction of the downforce acting on the vehicle with less adherence to the track and therefore an increase in speed, but also with a decrease in stability.
(Image source- https://www.presticebdt.com/)
The addition of the flap has the aim to increase the overall camber of the main wing, leading to an increased downforce and preventing flow separation.
When the airflow approaches the rear wing with DRS in closed position a large high pression area is generated on the upper side of the wing-flap profile, while a suction area is present underneath the profile. A qualitative effect of DRS effect on F1 aerodynamics is reported on the following image. The red colors identify a high pressure region while the blue one a low pressure area.
(pressure difference when DRS is opened or closed. Source- https://www.presticebdt.com/)
When the DRS system is activated, the high pressure on the upper profiles greatly declines. The reduced pressure means a reduced downforce and drag. By enabling the DRS system, a F1 car can have over 10 km/h gain. However, the overall impact of DRS on car performance are greatly influenced by the profile chosen as main wing. For instance, when low angle of attacks and low downforce profiles are used , also the effectiveness of the DRS system is reduced.
The diffuser is an area of bodywork at the rear of the car and the air flowing below the car, exits through the diffuser on the rear of the car. Although wings and diffusers work similarly, they are based on different concepts. A diffuser serves to eject air out from the underside of the car. This pulling action increases the velocity of the air below the car, so that the more slowly moving air above the car will push the car into the ground. The suction effect is a result of Bernoulli's equation, which states that where speed of the fluid is higher, pressure must be lower. Therefore the pressure below the race car must be lower than the pressure at the outlet since the speed of the air below the race car will be higher than the speed of the air at the outlet.
The diffuser in itself doesn't produce a reduction in pressure. The role of the diffuser is to expand the flow from underneath the car to the rear, decrease the flow's velocity from inlet of the diffuser to outlet (so that at the outlet the flow velocity is similar to the free stream velocity), in turn produce a pressure potential, which will accelerate the flow underneath the car resulting in reduced pressure and as such, a desired increased downforce generation.
The addition of the vertical ‘fences’ to a diffuser help to optimize the diffusers efficiency by ensuring that the air is only drawn only from the underbody and does not spill in from the upper body surfaces.
(Pressure on the underside of a diffuser. Source-- https://www.racecar-engineering.com/)
shows the pressure coefficient of a generic diffuser design, with blue representing lowest pressure areas and red highest pressure. This clearly illustrates the reduction in pressure at the throat area as the velocity increases and the subsequent reduction in pressure for the underfloor as the diffuser sucks the car to the ground.
The first time Lewis had sent you a gift, it had been reasonable. After your second date, he had sent over a beautiful bouquet of your favorite flowers. When you had expressed your thankfulness, he had brushed it off and said he liked to do it.
In the past, you had been with partners who had rarely wanted to spoil you outside of the typical holiday, which was never a problem. You knew people had different ways of showing their affection, and for Lewis, gift giving was at the top of his list.
With your relationship beginning in the off season during the driver’s time in New York, Lewis had fallen into the habit of sending you flowers and taking you out to fancy dinners. That was something that you could see as normal considering his profession.
Once the season started back up, that’s when he ramped it up. Since the pandemic, your job had gone completely remote. This ended up working in your favor considering you could make a few races to support Lewis.
You had bought plane tickets to attend both Monaco and Silverstone, and had decided to travel to more as the opportunity presented itself through the season.
One day, you had been sitting on your couch doing some work, when you got a ping on your personal email. Your jaw dropped when you saw six flight confirmations for first class seats to Italy, Germany, China, Austin, Vegas and Miami. Immediately you picked up your phone to call the culprit.
“Hey honey,” Lewis answered your face time from his bed, with Roscoe panting at his side. “How was your day?”
“Don’t hey honey me!” You squeaked. “What are all of these plane tickets?”
“Oh!” He perked up. “I’m glad Aaron got those settled. Let me know if the times don’t work, he can move the flights around.”
“Lewis!” You threw a hand up. “I can buy my own tickets babe, I told you I would!”
“Yeah, but I could take care of it for you. So I did,” he pouted at you. “Just want to have you there darling, I’m sorry.”
“Jeez babe,” you huffed. “Just ask me next time.”
So while Lewis liked to go above and beyond and get you things you planned for yourself before you could follow through, he also did practical things. One day, you mentioned on face time that now that you were working from home permanently that you wanted to set up a desk and work area.
Three days later, a delivery came with a desk, chair, and laptop stand.
That delivery had honestly made you tear up a little. Though this man had all the money in the world to spend, he took the time to spend it on you and on things that would make your life easier.
Not to say he wasn’t also dramatic in his gifts. When your six month anniversary approached, he sent you a Dior Bag, and Manolo Blahnik pumps. For your birthday, you got a Birkin Bag. For Valentines day, he sent over a Sephora Gift card for an astronomical amount of money, as well as a huge box of designer clothes he had worked with his stylist to pick out (with some lace buried in there he chose himself).
Every gift earned him an exasperated call from you, but every time he gave you those eyes and told you he loved you and appreciated you, the anger slipped away.
The most extravagant gift yet had come during his Summer break. You had taken the time to head to Monaco to spend his two free weeks in his home and in the beautiful weather.
One day he got you out of the apartment for a nice lunch date, and afterwards the two of you walked hand in hand down the streets. You wandered for a little until Lewis slowed and directed you to a dark store front.
“What is this?” You asked as he tugged on your hand. “Do you want to go in?”
“Yeah, I do,” he smiled at you, reaching out to open the door for you. You whispered a ‘thank you’ as you passed through the door. You stopped short as you observed the glass cases in front of you. There was an older man and a young woman inside the store dressed impeccably, and the woman approached with a glass of champagne.
“Welcome,” she grinned as Lewis wrapped his arm around your waist. “We are very happy to have you both here with us today. May I introduce Antoine, our head jeweler, who will be working with you both today.”
“Lewis,” you whispered as the woman gestured for you to follow her. “What is going on?”
Lewis tugged you around to face him. “This isn’t the proposal. But I want to spend the rest of my life with you. And I want to make sure the ring you wear for the rest of our lives is something you will love. So Antoine is going to help us find something or create something that works for you.”
Tears were in your eyes as you wrapped your arms around his neck. Breathing shakily, you kissed his neck, his cheek, and then pulled back to press three short pecks to his lips. “I love you,” he beamed down at you, whispering that he loved you too, before the two of you turned back to the store and met Antoine at the first case.
summary: mick goes by the small café you work at in the early morning hours and what you thought would be an awful morning shift turns out to be better than expected.
warnings: kinda fluff and one mention of a swear word
english is not my first language and this is the first imagine i've ever ever written so this is probably not up to standards yet. besides the obvious, i also want to say that this imagine is not filled with fluff and mostly writing practice. part two will be way more exciting ;)
It was currently 5 am. You just had woken up to get ready for your part-time job as a barista.
Mick had also just woken up, he had another two weeks before his next race and couldn't wait to warm his hands up around a nice cup of hot, steamy tea.
The café you are headed to opens up at six am, the only hour of the day when Mick has a moment to himself.
You didn't think anyone would be there at the ungodly hour of six in the morning. Usually, people only start to pour in at about eight o'clock, so you would have all the time in the world to start everything up.
Mick didn't like to stick to the usual, so right when you opened the doors of the café, Mick stood there, waiting.
You were quite shocked to say the least, but nevertheless, let him inside.
"Goodmorning, how may I help you?" You ask the blonde standing in front of the counter, his cheeks still rosy from the cold air outside.
"Goodmorning, I'd like a cup of tea if that's possible," he says as he smiles warmly at you.
"Sure, I'll go get that for you. You can just take place anywhere here. It may take a while for your tea to be ready, everything still has to warm up. But I'll bring it over as soon as possible," you rant and you give him an awkward smile as you hop from one foot to the other.
You sincerely hoped he wasn't in a hurry for his seven o'clock meeting or something. You really weren't in the mood for this guy to start throwing a tantrum this early in the morning.
Mick couldn't help but let out a small laugh as he told you he was fine with it and that he wasn't in a rush.
The truth was that he was in a rush, he only had an hour to drink his tea and get dressed to go work out, but he didn't feel the need to rush things. Besides, being a little bit late wouldn't hurt right?
After about ten minutes, you came by his table to bring him his cup of tea. He had chosen the nicest spot in the café and you didn't blame him. He was seated next to the large window overviewing the town square. From his seat you could see everyone and everything, just the way you both liked it.
"Here is your tea, would you like anything with it?"
After finally taking your time to regain your breath and slow your heartbeat down from rushing the opening of the café and getting everything ready for start-up, you could finally take a good look at the blonde boy.
His bright blue eyes were the first thing that stood out to you. They were mesmerizing and something you could stare into all day long and never get bored.
As you looked at him and daydreamed away you could see a small wrinkle forming in between his eyebrows.
He was frowning.
Wait, why was he frowning?
That's when you realised, you had totally forgotten to pay attention to anything he was saying. Your cheeks turned a rosy colour as you cleared your throat.
"Sorry, I kind of dozed off. Early morning, you know? What were you saying?" You awkwardly laughed off your daydreaming state as he chuckled at your flustered state.
"It's quite alright, and I don't want anything else thank you," he says and smiles up at you again.
God, that damn smile.
He had also been staring at you. Noticing the small wrinkles at the corners of your mouth when you smile, making your smile appear even warmer than it already was. Or the way your ears would turn a slightly darker shade of pink than your cheeks when you felt embarrassed.
He could continue the list of things he already picked up on in the short time he was here, but he tried to calm himself down. Telling himself that you most likely weren't that interested in him anyway and that he should quickly down his tea and get back on his way to the gym.
You had almost left his table again when he stopped you.
"Aren't you getting anything to drink?" He asks you, his voice cracking at the end.
You giggle at the high pitch he made as his cheeks turn pink, mirroring yours from earlier. "I don't usually share drinks with customers," you say as you turn back to face him once again.
"Well, I don't see anyone else here. You sure you don't have time for a small cup of tea? I would like it if you joined me."
He had calmed down a bit, his voice no longer cracked and he had stopped fumbling with the empty plastic packet of sugar that lay on the table.
You looked around the place, seeing that no one else had entered the café yet, the only two here being you and the young man in front of you.
"Well, they do say that the customer is always right so I guess one cup of tea won't hurt," you shrug as you make yourself a cup of tea before returning to the table.
"My name is Mick by the way," he says, explicitly mentioning only his first name. For one moment today, he wanted to be something more than just his last name.
His face did look familiar to you, but you couldn't quite place it. You had seen him a couple of times before on the tv, you knew it for sure, but you didn't want to bother him this early in the morning.
"I'm Y/N," you smile at him and he smiles back. You grab two sugar packets and dump them into your tea, hoping that will wake you up for the morning rush in about an hour.
"So, what do you do for a living?" You ask him, hoping that his answer might help you realize where you recognize him from.
"I drive," he answer vaguely, the smile slightly fading away from his face as he thinks of the long day ahead of him.
"Like, as a taxi driver or for uber or something?" You pause for a moment to think. "Or do you mean like, professional driving?"
That might be where you recognized him from, autosports or maybe a spokesperson.
"It's more professional," he says, still not giving too much information away.
You noticed he didn't really want to talk about it, so you quickly changed the subject.
"Well, I'm still stuck in university, studying, so to be honest, I'm quite jealous," you whispered leaning in to lighten the mood a bit, hoping to make him crack a smile.
He smiles slightly, not understanding how someone in university could be jealous of him. Of course he loved racing, but sometimes he also wanted to be invisible and live 'the normal life'.
"Do you have any pets?" Mick was still quite nervous, so this was the only question that popped up in his mind.
"Sadly no, but I would love to have a dog sometime." This made his whole face light up. "Really? I have the sweetest dog ever, her name is Angie. She's an Australian Shepherd. Hold on, I'll show you some pictures."
The conversation went on for another half an hour before a few new constumers started filing in.
"I'll have to get back to work again, sorry," you say as you start to clear his table of the empty cups.
"It's quite alright, you have nothing to be sorry for. It's your job after all," he smiles up at you as you return it.
You could feel the butterflies flutter around in your stomach as did Mick.
"Oh, I almost forgot, would you like to pay the bill here or at he register?"
"I'll head over there, don't worry. Just focus on the others who seem to be rather ... impatient." It sounded more like a question than a statement.
You turned around to see what he was talking about and you could see a couple of impatient student and bussiness men waiting at the register to be served.
You grimaced at the sight and quickly rushed over to help them, making Mick stiffle a laugh.
After you helped the group of costumers, Mick stopped by to pay for his tea, but before he could you stopped him.
"You know what, it's on me," you smile kindly at him as he eyebrows raised in shock.
"What, no! That's not how my mother taught me, I'm paying for both of our drinks," he states and takes his credit card out of his wallet.
"Nope, you're not. I already put it on my tab," you grin at the blonde who was in absolute shock by now.
"Well then let me pay for your tab."
"Yeah, no way in hell that's happening."
He sighs as he runs his hand over his face. "I'm not gonna be paying am I?" He chuckles as his head is tilted slightly to the side, amused by your headstrong attitude.
Then, a thought crosses your mind.
"I have a way you can pay me," a grin creeps up at the corners of your mouth as you say it. Mick slightly furrows his eyebrows, but he's still intrigued.
"Just give me your phone number and we're even."
And that's exactly what he does. You hadn't felt this bold in ages, it felt like a new rush. Nervousness mixed with adrenaline of some sort makes it feel like fireworks exploding in your body leaving you filled with excitement and a big smile plastered on your face.
As he leaves the café he gives you a small wave and you get lost in those beautiful blue eyes once again. And he gives you that smile again.
summary: request that went a lot sadder than anticipated!! prompt idea: lewis in a relationship with someone who has a good relationship with their dad. the ending would prob be like “don’t worry, i’ll keep her safe & happy just like you did, she’s in safe hands.” PLS
warnings: angst. parental loss, losing a parent (if this will be a trigger for you please do not read!)
No one ever talked about how hard this was going to be. There was a time when you thought you had years to prepare for losing your father. That had all changed when he had been diagnosed with a progressive case of Lung Cancer a year and a half ago.
Now, you were 32, expecting your first child, and your dad wouldn’t even be able to meet them.
“Hey darling,” your dad croaked from his recliner in your parents living room.
“Hi dad,” you smiled weakly, heading over to give him a hug and kiss. Your mom had called you the day before, explaining that your dad had ben having a pretty bad week. The two of you thought it would be a good idea for you to see him as soon as possible, so you and your husband had loaded up the car that morning and made the 2 hour drive north.
“How you feeling today?” you stood back up straight, unable to stay hunched over for long due to the little soccer player in your tummy.
“Just tired,” he smiled up at you, reaching out his hand. Knowing what he wanted, you stepped forward and moved his hand on your rounded tummy to where your baby was kicking a bit. “Look at that, think we got a footballer in there?”
“You don’t want him to be a driver?” a voice called from behind you, two tattooed hands landing on your shoulders, giving you a quick squeeze.
“Do you want that?” Your dad chuckled hoarsely as Lewis moved around you to bend over and press a kiss to your dads forehead.
“You’re looking good today! New haircut?” Lewis asked with a smile, drawing another laugh out of your father that turned into some heavy coughs.
“Let me go get you some water,” you murmured out, shuffling to the kitchen to also greet your mom.
“How are you really feeling,” Lewis sat down next to your dad, who was looking pale.
“It’s coming,” the older man sighed. “I can feel it.”
“Oh, don’t say that,” Lewis frowned, grabbing the older mans hand.
“Someone has to be realistic here,” the man smiled weakly. “As much as I want to be around forever, or even just to meet my grandson, I just know it’s not happening that way.”
Lewis stared at your father sadly for a moment, squeezing the mans hand. He met your father’s stare as the man squeezed back. “I need you to promise me, that you’ll take care of her,” your dad murmured, Lewis nodding. “She’s so strong, for all of us, but she’s going to need you when I’m gone.”
“You raised a good girl,” Lewis said thickly. “You can trust me with her. And with her mother. I’ll take care of them, I promise.”
The two men split up when you and your mother came back into the room, neither of you noticing Lewis wiping his eyes.
Only a few days later, you received the call you had been dreading. Your mum spoke through a wobbly voice, saying it was time to say goodbye. Lewis was at the factory, and you had been prepared to pack up the car and go on your own. But 20 minutes after your short phone call, the man had showed up at your shared home, not even changing out of his team gear before he bundled you into the car and began the drive.
You had seen your father in hospital beds many times over the past few months. But this time, you could tell it would be the last. He smiled with half closed eyes when the two of you entered his room, your mother’s face wet at his side.
Almost immediately your throat closed up and your eyes welled. “C’mere,” he grumbled, gesturing you over to the bed. You took a seat by his side, grabbing his hand in your own and crying as you held it by your face.
“I’m not ready,” you whimpered, Lewis’ hand sitting on your shoulder comfortingly.
“I know,” he smiled sadly. “Neither am I, but neither of us have a choice in this one bug.”
You cried harder as he called you the nickname from your childhood years. One you had begged him to stop using. Now you wanted to hear more of it.
“You are going to be such an amazing mum,” your dad cupped your cheek. “I want you to tell all the good stories about me ok? None of the boring ones.”
At that point, your mom excused herself, the atmosphere getting to her. “I’m going to go check on her,” you murmured, smiling sadly to your father as you followed her into the hall. Lewis took your seat, grabbing his father-in-law’s hand with a somber smile.
“Don’t worry,” Lewis leaned forward to cup your father’s shoulder. “I will keep her safe and happy, just like you did. She’s in safe hands.”
When you came back in the room with your mom, it was to silent tears on both of the men’s face, and their hands linked. A few hours later, the three of you sat with him as he took his last breath, going with a smile.
A few months later, the pain was just as raw as ever. Some days were better than others. Today, even though you were back in the hospital, was a good one.
“Look who’s here,” Lewis said quietly as he came into the hospital room with your mum.
“Oh darling,” the woman came over to give you a gentle hug, kissing your forehead. “You’ve done so well.”
You beamed up at your mother, exhaustion fading for a moment. “Do you want to meet him?” At your mother’s enthusiastic nod, Lewis went to the bassinet and picked up the blue blanket covered newborn, transferring him to your arms smoothly so your mom could look down at him.
“Meet Alexander Jaques Hamilton,” you smiled softly up at your mother, her eyes welling immediately.
“After your dad?” She asked the two of you with a shaky smile.
“After one of the greatest fathers any of us have known,” Lewis wrapped an arm around your mum’s shoulder.