It feels like an eternity since I posted something SU related that wasn't a request. Anyway, here are some adopts I got a while ago and that I finally drew! There's still some gems adopted left to draw too haha
Emerald Sapphire is strict but caring. She has a soft spot for Zoisite Ruby, who is very childish and playful, who happens to be defective and overcooked. Emerald didn't want Zoisite to be shattered. It kinda worked for years until they accidentally fused, forced them to escape. It sooner or later had to happen.
Uvarovite is very defensive and a bit unstable, but still caring. She's lost most of the time on her mind. She lacks future vision, just like Emerald does. She's just a permafusion of difficult access...
Also did a quick height reference between my garnet fusions to compare them
Sapphires have standard sapphire size. So is Star Ruby while Zoisite is smaller. Rhodolite is also standard garnet size while Uvarovite is a bit bigger with also bigger arms. Mostly to show she's more unstable haha.
Kinda curious on how would it be if the components were changed but for now that's all ^ ^
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"What games do you like?"
"Well there's this game where the main character dies at the start, but somebody brought them back to life after messing with their heart, so now they have to move to the beat of the music/their heart in order to not die and also there's enemies everywhere you have to fight to the music, and some REALLY creative boss fights. The main character seems to be pretty pissed off most of the time, but they're fundamentally good and trying to do the right thing."
"...Mad Rat Dead? Crypt of the Necrodancer?"
All jokes aside, this absolutely radical piece of art is a commission from the incredible @yellowinvitation! Once I made the connection between the two protags, I knew I had to see this fusion made reality- And having followed this artist for a while (and especially after seeing their MRD gijinkas and animation!), I knew exactly who I wanted to do it. Check them out if you're a fan of Mad Rat Dead, good tumblr posts, or just really cool art!
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Time for another science post! As usual, you can read more about fusion reactors under my #fusion tag! Let’s talk about…
Tokamaks vs Stellarators!
These devices work on the same general principle: take a very hot plasma, and confine it in a loop using powerful magnets. Heat up the plasma enough and it starts to fuse, then harvest the resulting neutrons to generate electricity. But there’s a catch!
You can’t just have the plasma move around in a circle. If you did that, negative and positive particles would drift in opposite directions, collide with the walls of the chamber, and fizzle out. Instead, you need to get everything moving in a helix.
The difference between a stellarator and a tokamak lies in how they generate that helix.
This is a tokamak! The vast majority of fusion reactors out there use this design. They work by having a torus (donut-shaped) plasma, with spiraling magnetic fields traveling through it. Within the toroidal plasma, particles follow the helical field lines.
The way you generate this helical field is pretty dang clever. What you do is take two perpendicular magnetic fields — one poloidal (looping in and out of the donut hole), and one toroidal (around the donut in a circle) — and add them together. The resulting combined field is a helix!
The toroidal field is “easiest” to generate. You have a series of powerful magnets that form a ring around the torus. They create a powerful magnetic field in the toroidal direction.
The poloidal field is trickier. For that one, you use a big transformer coil that sits in the middle of the “donut hole.” By ramping up the current in the transformer, you induce a corresponding current within the plasma itself. That plasma current in turn produces its own magnetic field, in the poloidal direction. Toroidal + poloidal = helical.
This is a stellarator! Or rather, one kind of stellarator. Rather than having a torus-shaped plasma with a helical magnetic field running through it, you just make the plasma itself into a helix! You use toroidal magnets (weird blue shapes above) to contain it and drive it along, without the need to generate any plasma current at all. This results in some incredibly wacky geometries!
So which is better?
That’s not an easy question to answer. Let’s compare pros and cons.
Simple geometry, symmetric all around.
Design is forgiving to small errors.
We’ve been building them for 50 years and have gotten pretty good at it.
Every toroidal magnet is identical. Manufacturing the machine is relatively cheap.
Extremely dense plasma that produces a ton of energy.
Plasma current induced by a transformer is inherently transient. If you want to run “steady state” (I.e. for more than 30 seconds), you need to have other ways of keeping that current going. This is doable with various techniques called “current drive,” but it’s tricky. KSTAR and EAST are two tokamaks that are very good at this.
If the plasma collides with the walls of the machine, the entire plasma current gets dumped into one spot. You get what’s called a “halo current,” where several mega amps of electricity blast through an area maybe 10 centimeters wide in a few milliseconds. This is called a “disruption event.” They happen a lot, and they give the machine a hell of a beating.
No need for plasma current! This means you can just run steady state pretty much indefinitely.
No plasma current means that disruptions are relatively gentle, when they happen at all.
As opposed to a tokamak, there are a lot of potential stellarator configurations. Before modern computers, trying to calculate a good stellarator magnet geometry was all but impossible.
They are extremely difficult and expensive to build. Every magnet is unique, and the Seussian vacuum chamber itself is a nightmare to engineer.
Stellarator plasmas are generally colder, and not as dense.
Given how difficult they’ve been to design, we just haven’t built many stellarators. Stellarator research is 30 years behind tokamak research.
So which is best? Nobody really knows! Judging by the trends in research, the first fusion power plant will almost certainly be a tokamak. But hey, it’s possible that eventually, stellarators will become the industry standard.
And now to finish it off, here are some pictures inside the two biggest stellarators in the world: LHD (the Large Helical Device) in Japan, and Wendelstein 7-X in Germany! They are confusing and hard to look at, and have very different geometries.
And here’s LHD:
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It’s always interesting to pick up specialized, esoteric terminology from experienced scientists and engineers. The language you hear on the job is very different than what you learned in lecture halls!
For example, in school, you might learn how to calculate that 4.6 GHz radio waves have a wavelength of 6.51 centimeters. On the job, the RF engineer will tell you that once you get to wavelengths much below 10 cm, radio tends to “wiggle through” unexpected gaps and “leak everywhere,” where it becomes a “huge pain in the ass.”
In school, you might learn that many metals will reflect neutron radiation. On the job, the plasma physicist will tell you that neutrons tend to “rattle around” inside steel coaxial cables and use them as channels to fly out into the building, where they will “ruin your day” and “piss off the nuclear safety people” if you don’t shield them right.
In school, you might learn that tungsten is an extremely dense material that makes for very good thermal shielding in extreme environments, but it can be challenging to machine. On the job, the mechanical engineer will tell you that working with tungsten is “the fucking worst” and if they have to build “an entire god damn wall of shielding tiles” out of it, they will “seriously pitch a fit.”
The fascinating and unique vocabulary of scientists is always such a pleasure to learn!
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