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#grammar

What’s the difference between a hyphen, an en dash, and an em dash?

What’s the visual difference?

- Hyphen

– En Dash

Em dash

What’s the meaning difference?

Hypens and en dashes connect things, em dashes seperate them.

A hypen is used in hyphenated names (my own last name is hyphenated) and in connected words such as merry-go-round. 

An En Dash means “through” and is used to indicate a range. Read pages 17–20. The war lasted 1203–1279.

There is usually no space on either side of an en dash or hyphen.

Em dashes are often used as substitutes for colons:

I took my phone out, confirming my worry— missed video call from Nigel.

Or parenthesis:

I could guess— and sort of tell, actually, by reading his aura— that Kaine might be trying to figure out if he’d seen me before.

But the reason I use them a lot in writing is they indocatee interruptions. This can be in speech:

“Not really—” Logan said quietly, interrupted by Winnie.

“Lews and I ’ere talkin’ ’bout that the other night!”

(Here I interrupt with dialogue, but it can be interrupted by anything, dialogue, action, even thought, especially if the thouight is by the speaker)

In thought/internal monologue:

I felt a sense of dread as I subconsciously took in the information— it was dark out. 

or

I had things back at the house— wait.

When a thought is interrupted:

If we hadn’t spent all that time talking—

(Here it can be interrupted with dialogue or action)

Stammering:

“I— nothing— we—”

To explain or conclude:

It’s like witchcraft, I think— it’s part of me.

I find these very useful because it feels more fluid to e, how speech and thoughts work, with interruptions and talking over each other and trailing thoughts. They flow better in y mind, and even though I tend to overuse them, they work for me and my style really well and they could help yours.

How do I remember the difference between an en and an em dash?

The name “en” and “em” comes from the size. “en” is about the length of an n, “em” is about the length of an m. Now, this doesn’t track as much when typing and with different fonts, but it did originally refer to the relative size. 

How do I make them?

A hyphen is already on your keyboard, to the left of the 0.

In casual settings, a doube hypen– is an acceptable substiture for an em dash, but it is not actually proper. However, in Microsoft Word, a double hypen should automatically correct to an em dash. If you use Docs, I suggest manually making that a shortcut.

Now even though each of the em dashes in this example were originally em dashes that I copy/pasted, copy it not from tumblr. Usually when I need it I google “em dash” and look until the character shows up and copy past it form there. But make sure it’s somewhere in a keyboard shortcut, it’ll make it much easier to use.

This is one of those grammar things I don’t consider to be a later stage of writing concern, because for me, using them helps me write and explore. I may go back and take some out later, though.

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Привет, друзья!
Сегодня расскажем об образовании и использовании времени Past Continuous)
#specterenglish #dicadeingles #phrasalwords #instaenglish #grammar #ielts #esl #vocabulary #vocab #esl #elt #education #englishhowto #englishteacher #english #englishlanguage #specterschool #specter #englishonline #learnenglish #learnenglishonline #английский #английскийонлайн #ingilizcekirabi #ingilizcedersi #ingilizceograniyorum #ingilizcesözler #английскийязык #영어 #영어를 배우다 #學英語 (at Saint Petersburg, Russia)
https://www.instagram.com/p/CA49YEAAtM9/?igshid=1c8e5yocoid3w

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誰かがこれらのどれは正しいのを知っていますか?またはもしどれも正しければ、もっと普通の方がありますか? / does anyone know which of these is correct or if they’re both ok which is better?

  1. それは可能かどうかわからない。
  2. それは可能なのかどうかわからない。

あらかじめありがとうございます‼︎ :)

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Stage 1 (“rejected”): A new form emerges as an innovation (or a dialectal form persists) among a small minority of the language community, perhaps displacing a traditional usage (e.g.: “your” misused for “you’re”).

Stage 2 (“widely shunned”): The form spreads to a significant fraction of the language community but remains unacceptable in standard usage (e.g.: *”pour over books” for “pore over books”).

Stage 3 (“widespread but …”): The form becomes commonplace even among many well-educated people but is still avoided in careful usage (e.g.: “clinch” misused for “clench”).

Stage 4 (“ubiquitous but …”): The form becomes virtually universal but is opposed on cogent grounds by a few linguistic stalwarts (die-hard snoots) (e.g.: “often” pronounced “OF-tuhn””).

Stage 5 (“fully accepted”): The form is universally accepted (not counting pseudo-snoot eccentrics) (e.g.: “decimate” for inflicting large-scale destruction).

Our mission is to stand athwart language change, yelling STOP!

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Right! This is a more or less important post. Since I have this blog up and running properly now, time to introduce my schedule. I’ll do my best to work abide by this unless I am feeling unwell etc, etc. 

I’d answer the questions -when I get them, that is- as quickly as possible, so don’t worry about that. 

I hope all of you are doing well & staying safe! 

solarinks
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Not very good when it comes to grammar so I need some advice. Would I annoy people if I name my future online stor “for.Everyone” ? It looks nice but I don’t want to seem like the dumbest bitch.

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it’s a staple for these two particular cases:

- starting a sentence in later bits of description: usually in an action genre type of scene. e.g. “he waits. then, as he descends to the glade, five warriors sneak up at the temple”. you need to be far down the plot and conflict is about to emerge, that’s where it works. pulling the particle to the beginning also gives it a sense of staccato which perfectly mirrors what’s about to happen. syntax and mood are a married couple.

- used like a synonym of ‘because’ in dialogue. or — in comparisons. e.g. ”in our office, there is nobody as kind as namjoon” 😄

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Originally posted by joonsoulmap-archived

hope this helps, happy writing 👍 tag me in your project.

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If you don’t capitalize Proper Nouns, you are a child.

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Sample Conversations

Lesson Twenty-Eight: I Liked France

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Masterlist

Previous Lesson

——————————————————————————-

Conversation

영어


JAE-HEE

Where is the best place you’ve traveled so far?


SO-MIN

I liked France which I went to the year before last.


JAE-HEE

Why is that the most memorable place?


SO-MIN

It was nice because there are many museums and art galleries. And the scenery in the countryside was so beautiful.

image

Conversation

한국어


재희

지금까지 여행한 곳 중에서 어디가 제일 좋았어요?

  • 지금 = (Right) Now
  • -까지 = To, until (place/time)
  • 여행하다 = To travel
  • = Place, location
  • 중에서 = Among, between
  • 어디 = Where
  • -이 / 가 = [Subject marker]
  • 제일 = The first / The most
  • 좋다 = To be good, nice / To be better than, superior to


소민

저는 재작년에 간 프랑스가 좋았어요.

  • = I, me
  • -은 / 는 = [Topic marker]
  • 재작년 = Year Before last
  • -에(서) = [Time marker]
  • = Went [past attributive of 가다 (to go)]
  • 프랑스 = France
  • -이 / 가 = [Subject marker]
  • 좋다 = To be good, nice / To be better than, superior to


재희

왜 거기가 제일 기억에 남아요?

  • = Why
  • 거기 = There / That
  • -이 / 가 = [Subject marker]
  • 제일 = The first / The most
  • 기억에 남다 = To be memorable


소민

박물관과 미술관이 많아서 좋았어요. 그리고 시골 풍경이 아주 아름다웠어요.

  • 박물관 = Museum
  • -과 = And
  • 미술관 = Art museum, art gallery
  • -이 / 가 = [Subject marker]
  • 많다 = To be many
  • -(아)서 = Because
  • 좋다 = To be good, nice / To be better than, superior to
  • 그리고 = And, and then
  • 시골 = Countryside
  • 풍경 = Landscape, scenery, view
  • 아주 = Very (much), exceedingly
  • 아름답다 = To be beautiful
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Originally posted by steveman747

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Continuing where we left off we will be reviewing the imperative, infinitive, and the participle.


The Imperative Mood:

      We would use the Imperative mood to indicate an order or a command directly given to someone. This can also be broken down into a Simple Imperative and a Continuous Imperative, and will have some differences between each of the three groups of verbs. For the sake of ease we will begin with looking at the Continuous Imperative before the Simple Imperative. *As a note, this mood is negated by the particle μη(ν)*


The Continuous Imperative:

      This mood is used as the name implies. It is when we give commands that are continuous or ongoing. There are a few different ways to form these verbs:

1. Verbs without an accent mark on the final -ω (group 1)

      We have two forms; Singular and Plural

  • The singular forms by taking the present tense form, removing the final -ω and replacing it with a final -ε.
  • The plural forms by taking the present form, removing the final -ω and replacing it with a final -ετε

*If the verbs in group one begin with a vowel, or have three syllables you must move the accent mark to the next vowel to the left, ONLY for the singular.*

ex:

Singular: αγοράζω -> αγόραζε

Plural: αγοράζω -> αγοράζετε


2. Verbs that have an accent on the final -ώ, but do not belong to group 3

  • The singular forms by removing the final -ώ in the present tense form and replacing it with -ει
  • The plural forms by removing the final -ώ in the present tense form and replacing it with -είτε

ex:

Singular: προχωρώ -> προχώρει/προχώρα

Plural: προχωρώ -> προχωρείτε


3. Verbs that have an accent on final -ώ/-άω (group 3)

  • The singular forms by removing the final -ώ/-άω in the present tense form and replace it with -α and moving the accent mark one vowel to the left.
  • The plural forms by removing the final -ώ/-άω and replacing it with -ατε

ex:

Singular: ρωτάω -> ρώτα

Plural: ρωτάω -> ρωτάτε

The Simple Imperative:     

      This mood is used to express a command that, once it has been completed it is over/completed (something done within the moment). There are a few different ways to form these verbs:

1. Verbs without an accent mark on the final -ω (group 1)

     We have again, have two forms; Singular and Plural

  • The singular forms by taking the future tense form, removing the final -ω and replacing it with a final -ε.
  • The plural forms by taking the future form, removing the final -ω and replacing it with a final -ετε

ex:

Singular: γράφω -> γράψω -> γράψε

Plural: γράφω -> γράψω -> γράψετε/γράψτε


2. Verbs that have an accent on the final -ώ, but do not belong to group 3

  • The singular forms by removing the final -ω in the future tense form and replacing it with -ε
  • The plural forms by removing the final -ώ in the future tense form and replacing it with - εστε/ειστε

ex:

Singular: κατοικώ -> κατοικήσω -> κατοικήσε

Plural:  κατοικώ -> κατοικήσω -> κατοικείστε

3. Verbs that have an accent on final -ώ/-άω (group 3)

  • The singular forms by removing the final -ώ/-άω in the future tense form and replace it with -ε.
  • The plural forms by removing the final -ώ/-άω in the future tense form and replacing it with -τε

ex:

Singular: ρωτάω -> ρώτησω -> ρώτησε

Plural: ρωτάω -> ρώτησω -> ρωτήστε


The Infinitive:

      This is the “to” form of a verb. This is when you may want to add in a “to run” or a “to swim”.

      These are formed in a relatively simple way as we have already started doing this for many other verbal forms. This will be found many times in the subjunctive mood, as they would usually be preceded with ‘να’ or other subjunctive particles/conjunctions.

      In order to form these, we simply use the third person singular form of the future tense of the verbs:

τρέχω -> τρέξει (to run)

δουλεύω -> δουλέψει (to work)

θεωρώ -> θεωρήσει (to consider)

μισώ -> μισήσει (to hate)


The Participle (Gerund)

      The moment we’ve all been waiting for, another fun way to use verbs. This is the adverbial use of a verb, or the form with an -ing in English (Running, Falling, Loving). Basically, if we want to modify a previous verb clause or give added detail to the sentence, we would use these.

      This form is indeclinable, meaning there isn’t any methods or forms you have to stress over, except the one way that it comes packaged.

      The way we form this is pretty simple, however, there are two methods. All we need to do, though, is:

Group 1:

  • Take the verb in the present indicative mood and remove the final -ω
  • Then add on a final -οντας

Group 2/3

  • Take the verb in the present indicative mood and remove the final -ώ/-άω
  • Then add on a final -ώντας

Some examples of both:

αγαπώ -> αγαπώντας ([by] loving)

μιλάω -> μιλώντας ([by] speaking)

τρέχω -> τρέχοντας ([by] running)

γράφω -> γράφοντας ([by] writing)

*Please note, not every verb will have an adverbial form, and when in doubt ask someone who may know, or research the verbs.*


With that, this concludes our section on the verbs in the active voice, and we will shortly begin our section into the passive voice of the verbs. In the interim, There may be some posts with further examples with explanations, and words lists between hand to add some variety and vocabulary instead of pure grammar on a regular basis.

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Me: Language and grammar are fluid. Historically, enforcing adherence to grammatical rules has been used to divide people by wealth, and as a means to make wealthy people, wealthy white people in particular, feel superior to poorer classes, including people of color. This is not an example of intellect and should not be treated like one.

Also me: If you do not use the Oxford comma I WILL scream and that is a threat AND a promise.

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