"...the Goddess of Victory will bestow her laurels only on those who are prepared to act with daring." ☆ﾟ. * ･ ｡ﾟ
A gold version too because she's every winged golden statue I have ever seen.
This is actually a commission for a friend, which is the best type of commission ♥(ˆ⌣ˆԅ)
GREEK DIETY CHEAT SHEET PART 2
(8 Greek gods and their correspondences)
part one HERE
HECATE— Goddess of Magic & Witchcraft, Ghosts & Necromancy, Crossroads, & the Moon
All of them (She is the goddess of magick, after all)
🌳Plants & Trees:
The asphodel, the aconite, the belladonna, the mandrake, the hemlock, the poppy, the dittany, the lavender, the dandelion, the hellebore, garlic, the mugwort, the yew tree, the cypress tree, the pomegranate tree, the oak tree, the black poplar tree, the willow tree, the hazel tree, the cedar tree, the almond tree
💎Stones & Gems:
Sapphire or star sapphire,
Any stone that is dark & luminous (i.e. Black tourmaline, Hematite, Jet, Obsidian, Onyx, etc.)
Triple moon, Dark moon, The crone,Cauldron, Torches, Keys, Daggers, Rope, Crossroads, Entry ways & gates, Dogs (especially black ones), She-wolf, Frogs, Snakes, Weasels, Black ewes, Crows, Owls, Horses
Dandelions, Poppies, Lavender, Garlic, Almonds, Raisins or currants, Figs, Black olives, Wine, Water, Honey, Cookies or cakes made to look like one of Her symbols, Eggs (especially boiled), Leaving a plate of food at a crossroads or burying a small cake/libation at a crossroads, Blood offerings (just a finger-prick) or mock-blood offerings, Appreciating the weird & uncanny
ZEUS — King of the Gods & God of the Sky, Weather, Law & Order, & Justice
🗓Day of the Week:
🌳Plants & Trees:
The wild celery
the oak tree
the olive tree
the white poplar tree
the linden tree
💎Stones & Gems:
Crown/wreath of olive leaves,
Bulls (especially white bulls)
Eagle feathers (obtained humanely, i.e. discarded),Oak branches/leaves,Gold (gold coins, gold bowl or cup, etc.),Wreath of olive leaves,White wine,Honey,Figs,Vervain, Damiana, Hyssop, Ginseng, Saffron, Cookies or cakes made to look like one of His symbols, Beef or mutton, Cotton candy, Whipped cream, Writing or reading poetry in His honor, Honoring commitments
PAN — God of Nature, Music, & Fertility
🌳Plants & Trees:
the mountain pine tree
the hemp/Indian hemp
💎Stones & Gems:
Syrinx (set of panpipes)
Panpipes, Wine/mead, Beer, Milk (especially goat's milk), Water, Honey, Grain, Fruits, Honey-cakes (for his nymphs), Cookies or cakes made to look like one of His symbols, Mutton, Hemp or cannabis, Pine needles, Making lots of noise (music, chanting, etc., so as not to startle Him), Eating/drinking/being merry, Having sex or participating in sexual acts, Not disturbing Him around noon (when He likes to nap)
IRIS — Goddess of the Rainbow & Messenger of the Gods
All of them
🌱Plants & Trees:
💎Stones & Gems:
Moonstone, Rainbow moonstone, Opal, Pearl, Rainbow obsidian
Pitcher of water
Water, Wine, Honey, Wheat, Figs, Cakes or cookies made to look like one of Her symbols, Irises, Feathers, Prisms, Postage stamps, Cotton candy, Whipped cream
HESTIA — Goddess of the Hearth & Home
🌳Plants & Trees:
the chaste tree
the California poppy
the purple coneflower
all white flowers
💎Stones & Gems:
Kettle or cauldron
First/last foods & libations from a meal, Candles/flame, Wine, Honey, Pork, Cakes or Cookies made to look like one of Her symbols, Bread (especially homemade), Cooking herbs (such as basil, thyme, rosemary) & spices, Lavender or chamomile tea, Keeping a candle/hearth fire or lamp constantly burning, Welcoming others into your home, Keeping the peace (especially in the home), Donations of time & money to Habitat for Humanity, Lavender, White roses
ERIS — Goddess of Strife, Discord, & Chaos
🌳Plants & Trees:
The apple tree
💎Stones & Gems:
Poniard (which She keeps hidden)
Apples, Golden apples (oranges), Social protest, Recognizing the positivity of dark times/negativity
HERA — Queen of the Gods & Goddess of Women, Marriage, Childbirth, & Motherhood
🌳Plants & Trees:
the white rose (white flowers in general)
the pomegranate tree
the apple tree
the willow tree
the cypress tree
the chaste tree
💎Stones & Gems:
Sapphire or star sapphire
Peacock feathers, Lotuses, Lilies, White roses, White flowers of any kind, Poppies, Irises, Pomegranates or pomegranate seeds, Apples, Pears, Oranges, Staying faithful in a relationship & keeping the romance alive, Supporting women's rights, Donations to a women's shelter, Donating old maternity clothes or baby things to those less fortunate
ATHENA— Goddess of War, Wisdom, & Arts & Crafts
🗓Day of the Week:
🌳Plants & Trees:
The olive tree
the oak tree
the cypress tree
the citrus trees
💎Stones & Gems:
Aegis (shield with Medusa's likeness)
Helmet & armor
Doves (symbol of victory)
Olives/olive oil, Owl-shaped cookies or cakes, Wine, Handmade crafts especially textiles & pottery, Donations to educational institutes
Please feel free to use this whenever you’d like! I hope it helps some people out! if you haven’t already please check out my GREEK DEITY CHEAT SHEET (PART1) post!(just click ^^)🥺🥰
*all art creds to Yliade on Deviant art! Please check them out!(you can do so HERE)*
If you like what I do here please feel free to check out my Mothers Etsy store! Moon Circle Insights She’s got a wonderful assortment of detailed spells on there✨🥰
until the next time! Merry meet, merry part, merry meet again✨🔮 -B
Follow for more!
as a woman, I believe Circe was right when she transformed all those men in pigs
10 Myths About Hellenismos
Today, let's address some popular myths (and the truths) about Hellenismos and its deities. Not very surprisingly, most of these things come from Wicca or Christian colonization. You can believe these things if you want, they just aren't from the religion.
Myth 1: Deity work is dangerous
Truth: Deity work, in Hellenismos, isn't any more dangerous than worshiping the Christian god is supposed to be. This notion didn't originate in Hellenismos, and is also a largely neopagan idea. Our theoi aren't monsters or aggressive. They won't kill you over tiny mistakes. Just respect them, do what you can, and you'll be fine.
Remember that even in the mythos, people aren't smited for the wrong offering. They're smited for blatant and deliberate disrespect, which by nature can't be done accidentally.
Our deities genuinely aren't easily angered. They wont be mad if you reach out to them, if you confuse them for something else, if you give them the wrong offering, etc.
Myth 2: You need to look out for entities impersonating deities
Truth: Again, this isn't remotely from Hellenismos. Our gods cannot be impersonated by evil entities. Frankly, we don't really have entities with that desire or power in the religion. If you're contacting a Hellenic deity, and you get an affirmative response, you contacted them. The idea you didn't, or that something else is lying to you, is from outside the religion. Our deities are more powerful than random ghosts, and our religion doesn't have that concept.
Myth 3: Hekate is a moon goddess/crone
Truth: Hekate is associated with the moon, but she is not a goddess of the moon. She is the goddess of one lunar phase--the dark moon, which is on the eve of Hekate's Deipnon. She is also not a crone goddess outside of neopaganism and Wicca. Historically, she was depicted as a maiden. Her triple form was also not maiden/mother/crone, simply a triple maiden-esque figure.
Myth 4: Hestia gave her seat to Dionysos/Apollon took Helios's chariot
Truth: Honestly, it's just a difference in counting. Some deities were and weren't Olympians depending on time, culture, and locations. No seats on Olympos were "given up," it's just that sometimes one is there and sometimes the other isn't.
As for the chariot, no. Apollon didn't replace Helios. They were synchronized, but Apollon didn't "take" the chariot, and Helios was never removed. Helios is still the sun--his name is literally "sun."
Myth 5: The myths are history/Hellenic Polytheists believe in the myths
Truth: The characters in myths are real to us, and some myths are literal, but in general, Hellenic mythology is not meant to be taken fully literally. Most of it is symbolic. Additionally, a lot of the r*pe in the mythos is translation errors. We believe in our heroes and our gods, and we believe there is truth in the myths, but no, our mythology isn't like Christian mythology--it's not expected or really encouraged to believe the myths are strictly true history. The myths aren't even consistent over time and location, so it's simply impossible to believe in all of them at once. But no, our gods do not act the way they do in mythology. Myths are by and for mortals, and do not capture the divine.
Myth 6: It's disrespectful to dress up as or write fiction about the gods
Truth: This is just ridiculous and ahistoric. The majority of Ancient Greek theater was deity cosplay and fanfiction. I said what I said.
This can definitely be done disrespectfully, but isn't inherently disrespectful. You also aren't required to represent the theoi fully accurately in this.
Myth 6: X god is Y orientation/gender
Truth: While you can certainly theorize our theoi's sexuality, and none of our gods are cishet by modern standards, none of the gods can only be interpreted as one gender or orientation. The terms we ascribe to them are based on mythos, portrayals, and modern interpretation of historic social roles.
The most common of these theories are maiden goddesses as aroace (ie. Hestia, Athena, Artemis), erastes (top) gods as bi men (ie. Zeus, Apollon, Patroklos), eromenos (bottom) gods as gay men (ie. Ganymedes, Hyakinthos, Akhilleus), and Artemis as a lesbian.
None of these are wrong, to be clear. It's just not as simple as using our modern labels for them. Erastes and eromenos were both considered straight in Ancient Greece; being a 'virgin' didn't always mean celibate; Artemis can be interpreted as bi, lesbian, and/or aroace based on her myths. You can interpret them however you like--I certainly interpret my gods as queer--but there is no single right answer.
Myth 7: You need a patron or to be devoted to someone, or can only have one patron/be devoted to one god, & devotion is an oath
Truth: Patron deities are more of a principle in neopaganism and Wicca than in Hellenismos. Worshiping the theoi does not require you to find a patron or devote to a deity, ever. Patronage is not particularly important or common, unless you are thinking of a patron god of a trade (ie. if you're a blacksmith your patron is Hephaistos).
Devotion is also not exclusive, and never requires an oath. Oaths in Hellenismos are extremely serious, and should never be taken without extreme caution. If you aren't willing to die if you break the oath, don't make it--find something else. You probably wont die, but that's the necessary level of certainty. Devotion, while serious, is not as serious as being oath-bound. You can be devoted to multiple deities, and devotion can be called off if needed. You can't really call off an oath.
Myth 8: X god is a r*pist!
Truth: Please stop it. Just stop it. No. Especially if you're basing that on Lore Olympus. The mythology isn't fact, weird inaccurate mythology fanfic written by someone who doesn't know anything about the myths isn't fact.
The mythology isn't straight up history. The myths were often mistranslated (the Greek word for r*pe didn't just mean r*pe) and they aren't facts. They were also products of their culture. So. No. They are not. And their worshipers aren't r*pe apologists.
Myth 9: Titans are evil and/or Olympians hate titans
Truth: Titans are fine. Really. They're not evil, they're not going to hurt you. They're just another kind of Theoi. Many of them were actually a large part of the historic religion. Hekate's Deipnon was a monthly festival, after all. And no, Olympians don't hate titans. Remember the point about myths not being literal.
Myth 10: The gods are jealous
Truth: No, the gods will not be jealous if you worship another god. They wont be jealous if you worship another pantheon, or if you need a break. If you're a god consort, they won't be jealous if you're interested in other mortals or deities. If you're a devotee, they won't be upset if you devote to other deities.
The most jealous a god gets is upset if you break an oath, promise, or agreement with them. If you promised them a daily libation but skipped it for another deity without permission, they may get upset. But even then, that's not really jealousy.
Myth 11: If you work with X deity, you can't work with Y
Truth: This is usually based on rivalry in mythology, and isn't true at all. Related to the above jealousy point, no deity in real life hates another deity, especially not enough that if you worship both they'll be upset. You can worship Aphrodite and Persephone. You can honor Hera and Leto.
Most of these gods are actually happy if you honor other theoi. Many of them are family, or share domains.
If enough people are interested, I might make a part two, because this is barely the tip of the iceberg. RBs welcome from pagans and non-pagans alike.
Just a reminder that the gods can look however they want because they’re fucking gods.
Their kids can look vastly different from each other because the gods change form whenever they want.
ps: stop bullying people (especially children) on the internet
Sing, O Muses, of Phoebus Apollo, whose glory shines brighter than thousand suns!
The Nereids (Νηρειδες, "daughters of Nereus") are a group of fifty nymphs, daughters of the God Nereus and the Oceanid Doris. They are sea nymphs and each of them embodies an aspect of it. Each Nereid is the personification of an aspect of the sea. In total, there are fifty or sixty females and only one male: Nerites.
The Nereids are minor Goddesses of the sea, known for their kindness and benevolence towards humans. In fact, they often helped missing sailors find their way back. They are the protectors of the marine kingdom and all its creatures, they bring wealth and abundance. It is said that the Nereids sisters often meet on the coasts to sing and dance together, to celebrate the Moon.
They are sacred creatures to the Goddess Aphrodite who often assist her in her divine commissions and are part of the court of King Poseidon.
They are described as beautiful young maidens. They are also immortals. They wear gold and silver jewelry, with pearls and shells. They are often naked or dressed in thin chitons, depicted together with dolphins or seahorses or other creatures of the sea. They were frequently represented with Tritons and other marine monsters. Sometimes, also, they appear on gems as half maidens and half fish, like mermaids.
They were worshipped in several parts of Greece, but more especially in sea-port towns. Their epithets refer partly to their beauty and partly to their place of abode.
They dwelt with their father in a grotto at the bottom of the Aegean Sea. According to some spiritual people, mediums and witches, some of the Nereids are incarnated here on earth.
AGAUE (Agave) A Nereid whose name means "the illustrious." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
AKTAIA (Actaea) The Nereid of the "sea-shore." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
AMATHEIA (Amathea) One of the Nereids, the one who "rears or nurses" the fish. (Homer, Hyginus)
AMPHINOME A Nereid of the sea's bounty, literally "she of the surrounding pasture." (Homer, Hyginus)
AMPHITHOE A Nereid of the sea currents, named "she who moves swiftly around." (Homer, Hyginus)
AMPHITRITE The Nereid Queen of the sea, the "surrounding third," wife of the God Poseidon. Together with her sisters Kymatolege and Kymodoke she possessed the power to still the winds and calm the sea. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
APSEUDES One of the Nereids. (Homer, Hyginus)
AUTONOE A Nereid named "with her own mind." (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
DERO One of the Nereids. (Apollodorus)
DEXAMENE One of the Nereids, "of the strength of the right hand." (Homer, Hyginus)
DIONE One of the Nereids, "the divine." (Apollodorus)
DORIS The Nereid of the sea's "bounty" or else the mixing of fresh water with the brine. She has the same name of her mother. (Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus)
DOTO The Nereid of "giving" safe voyage or generous catch. She had a shrine in the town of Gabala. (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Pausanias, Hyginus)
DYNAMENE The Nereid of the sea's "power."(Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
EIONE The Nereis of the "beach strand." (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
ERATO A Nereid named "the lovely.". (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
EUAGORE (Evagora) The Nereid of the "good assembling" of fish or perhaps navy ships. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
EUARNE (Evarne) One of the Nereids, "the well-lambed?" (Hesiod)
EUDORA The Nereid of the "fine gifts" or the sea. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
EUKRANTE (Eucrante) The Nereid of "successful" voyages or fishing. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
EULIMENE The Nereid of "good harbourage." (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
EUMOLPE A Nereid, perhaps of fisherman's songs, named "the fine singer." (Apollodorus)
EUNIKE (Eunice) The Nereid of "fine victory" in a martime sense. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
EUPOMPE The Nereid of "the fine procession," perhaps with reference to religious journeys to thei sland shrines. (Hesiod)
GALATEIA (Galatea) The Nereid of "the milky white" sea-foam. She was loved by the Kyklops Polyphemos. (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
GALENE The Nereid of the "calm" seas. (Hesiod, Pausanias)
GLAUKE (Glauce) The Nereid of the "blue-grey" waters. (Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus)
GLAUKONOME (Glauconome) The Nereid of the "mastering the grey" sea. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
HALIA The Nereid of the "brine." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus)
HALIMEDE The Nereid "lady of the brine." (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
HIPPONOE The Nereid "who knows about horses," that is, of the waves. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
HIPPOTHOE The Nereid of "the swift horses," that is, swift waves. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
IAIRA (Iaera) One of the Nereids. (Homer, Hyginus)
IANASSA One of the Nereids. (Homer, Hyginus)
IANEIRA One of the Nereids. (Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
IONE One of the Nereids. (Apollodorus)
KALLIANASSA (Callianassa) One of the Nereids, "the lovely queen." (Homer, Hyginus)
KALLIANEIRA (Callianeira) One of the Nereids. (Homer)
KALYPSO (Calypso) One of the Nereids, "the concealed one." (Apollodorus)
KETO (Ceto) The Nereid of "sea-monsters."(Apollodorus)
KLAIA (Claea) One of the Nereids. (Pausanias)
KLYMENE (Clymene) A Nereid of "fame." (Homer, Hyginus)
KRANTO (Crato) One of the Nereids. (Apollodorus)
KYMO, KYMATOLEGE (Cymo, Cymatolege) A Nereid named the "wave" or the "end of waves" wh,o with her sisters Amphitrite and Kymodoke, had the power to still the winds and calm the sea. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
KYMODOKE (Cymodoce) The Nereid of "steadying the waves" who, with her sisters Amphitrite and Kymatolege, possessed the power to still the winds and calm the sea. (Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus, Virgil)
KYMOTHOE (Cymothoe) The Nereid of the "running waves." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
LAOMEDEIA The Nereid "leader of the folk." (Hesiod)
LEAGORE The Nereid of "assembling" the schools of fish. (Hesiod)
LIMNOREIA The Nereid of the "salt-marsh." (Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
LYSIANASSA The Nereid of "royal delivery." (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
MAIRA (Maera) One of the Nereids. (Homer, Hyginus)
MELITE The Nereid of "calm" seas. (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus, Virgil)
MENIPPE The Nereid of "strong horses," that is, strong waves. (Hesiod)
NAUSITHOE The Nereid of "swift ships." (Apollodorus)
NEMERTES The Nereid of "unerring" counsel, wisest of the sisters. (Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus)
NEOMERIS One of the Nereids. (Apollodorus)
NESAIE The Nereid of "islands." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus, Virgil)
NESO The Nereid of "islands." (Hesiod)
OREITHYIA (Orithyia) The Nereid of the "raging" sea. (Homer, Hyginus)
PANOPEIA The Nereid of the sea's "panorama." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus, Virgil)
PASITHEA A Nereid named "all-divine." (Hesiod)
PHEROUSA (Pherusa) The Nereid of "carrying" fish, or perhaps rescued sailors. (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
PLEXAURE The Nereid of the "twisting breeze." (Apollodorus)
PLOTO The Nereid of "sailing." (Hesiod)
POLYNOME One of the Nereids, "the many pastured." (Apollodorus)
PONTOMEDOUSA (Pondomedusa) A Nereid named the "sea-queen." (Apollodorus)
PONTOPOREIA The Nereid of "crossing the sea." (Hesiod)
POULYNOE (Polynoe) A Nereid named "rich of mind." (Hesiod)
PRONOE The Nereid of "forethought." (Hesiod)
PROTO The Nereis of the "first" voyage. (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus)
PROTOMEDEIA A Nereid named "first queen." (Hesiod)
PSAMATHE The Nereid "goddess of sand." (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
SAO The Nereid of "safe" passage, or the rescue of sailors. (Hesiod, Apollodorus)
SPEIO (Spio) The Nereid of the sea "caves." (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Hyginus, Virgil)
THALEIA (Thalia) The Nereid of the "blooming" sea. (Homer, Hyginus, Virgil)
THEMISTO The Nereid of the "customary law" of the sea. (Hesiod)
THETIS The Nereid of the "generation" or spawning of fish, and their leader. She was the mother of the Greek hero Achilles, born of her marriage to the mortal Peleus. (Hesiod, Homer, Apollodorus, Virgil)
THOE The Nereid of "swift" voyage or moving waves. (Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus)
Sources: theoi.com, wikipedia, britannica.com
List of Greek Gods & Goddesses Version 2.0 - (3/1/22)
Okay, so I’ve updated the original list about a hundred times since I first posted it and now there are a hundred different versions re-blogged all over Tumblr 😅
So I just decided to rewrite and update it and post it as a new list. I’m confident that this version has enough detail and is organized enough to help the novice, enthusiast, polytheist and whoever else get a basic understanding of the Greek gods.
THE TWELVE OLYMPIANS + DIONYSUS & HADES
THE GODS & GODDESSES WHO RESIDE ON OLYMPUS
Zeus ( ΖΕΥΣ ) Pronounced: zĕfs; the diphthong εύ is pronounced like the ef in ‘left’.
Zeus is the supreme god of the Greeks. It is said even fate is subservient to him. He is the great olympian, whom even the gods obey; he is the king and father of gods and men. His sister Hera sits at his side and is his equal. He oversees and manages the whole cosmos, he hears everything; therefore it would have to be assumed that he possesses some sort of omnipresence. Zeus is the source of all prophecy and Apollo speaks his oracles. He rules the sky, lightning and thunder and tempest (winds), which he produces by shaking his mighty Aegis. He cares for all the affairs and sufferings of man and punishes those who commit injustice. He presides over the entire state and every family and person. The dominion of Zeus is that of justice, law and order. Zeus is god of hosts and god of guests who protects travelers and strangers and presides over hospitality and the rights and sanctity of suppliants. He presides over oaths, which are sworn to his name. The lion and the eagle are associated with him, as well as the oak.
Hera ( ΗΡΑ ) Pronounced: EE-rah.
Hera is often depicted in the mythology as an angry wife, defending her marriage against what is portrayed as Zeus' infidelity. She pursues and torments the recipients of her husband's advances, including the resulting offspring, most famously Herakles. While the mythology fabricates a negative impression of the goddess, her majesty and greatness of soul are ineffably prodigious. Hera is the queen of the heavens, the matriarch, she looks over women and their families, and protects the institution of marriage and the fidelity which should accompany it. She is on equal footing with Zeus and possess the same amount of power and authority over the cosmos. Similar to Artemis and other goddesses, she watches over childbirth.
Poseidon ( Ποσειδῶν ) Pronounced: poh-see-DOHN, accent on the last syllable
According to the mythology, he was determined by lot to have dominion over the seas and oceans. Therefore, he has the ability to grant safe voyage over the sea and save seafarers from marine calamity. Poseidon is said to have a similar power as Zeus, the ability to cause storms, but at sea. He has a particular interest in horses, according to Homer, he created the horse, and taught man how to ride with the bridal. He is said to have instituted the racing of horses. Poseidon is described as holding the earth, because his dominion, the sea, is thought to surround the earth, and, therefore, he has the ability to shake the earth, i.e. to produce earthquakes.
Demeter ( Δημήτηρ ) Pronounced : dee-MEE-teer, the d (delta) is pronounced like the soft th in ‘this’.
Demeter is the great Goddess of fertility and of the fruitful earth. She has given us agriculture and, particularly, the cultivation of fruits, vegetables and grains, and by doing so she has given us the ability to rise above the level of the beasts of the world. She is the goddess of abundance, breathing life into the seed, allowing all plant, animal and human life to grow and multiply. Demeter is the mother and the giver of food and nourishment. Because she is in control of the life and death cycle of nature she is also worshipped as the goddess of seasons. Demeter gives us awesome mysteries which sweeten our lot in this life and bestow hope for good things after death. She is one of several goddesses who protects marriage and bestows peace and the laws which enable peace to flourish.
Hestia ( ΕΣΤΙΑ ) Pronounced: ĕs-TEE-ah.
Hestia is a virgin goddess. According to the homeric hymn to Aphrodite, Apollo and Poseidon asked her hand in marriage, but she swore an oath to Zeus to remain a maiden. In ancient times the temple of delphi was the home of an eternal flame or hearth representing the fire of the goddess. In like manner, every city had a sacred hearth which ordinarily procured its fire from delphí. The fire of Hestia dwells in the hearth of the home. Since the hearth, symbolically, is the center of the home, and the goddess is its fire, Hestia is the source of all the blessings of domestic life, the very founder and support of the family. Hestia is, therefore, the tutelary goddess of the home and, by extension, she is the protector of the safety and concord of the state. She is the recipient of the first portion of all sacrifices. In every ritual, she is honored first, always, with the recitation of her orphic hymn. In addition, it is traditional to offer a libation before and after meals to her.
Hephaestus ( ΗΦΑΙΣΤΟΣ ) Pronounced: EE-fĕs-tohs, with the accent on the first syllable.
The most important characteristic of Hephaestus is his fire. In the theogony, he, along with his sister Athena, were taught skills by the cyclopes. They taught him how to make beautiful works of bronze. He is depicted in the mythology as dwelling in a glorious palace in Olympus, in which he crafts beautiful things such as the armor of Achilles, the palaces of the gods, their jewelry, and many other things. Therefore, Hephaestus is associated with workers, smiths, sculptors, skill, and craftsmen. Both Hephaestus and Athena bestow skills to artists and craftsmen and teach the arts to civilize and beautify life. He is the son of Hera and Zeus, this according to Apollodorus, although some sources say that he is a "wind-child" of Hera alone, that is, conceived without the help of Zeus, this according to Hesiod.
Athena ( ΑΘΗΝΑ ) Pronounced: ah-thee-NAH, the accent falling on the final syllable, or not accenting any syllable.
Athena is the daughter of Zeus and Metis. Zeus swallowed Metis while she was pregnant with Athena for fear that Metis would give birth to a son who would overthrow him. Hephaestus, split the head of Zeus with an axe and Athena emerged in full battle-gear. Athena is prudently warlike in that she protects the state from external enemies. She is the protector and companion of heroes such as Odysseus and Perseus, who are distinguished for their valor and strength of character. Athena is a great goddess of wisdom, knowledge, and the arts: those things and institutions which civilize man and distribute wise counsel. She maintains and protects law and justice and has an interest in everything which creates stability, strength and abundance in the state. She is the patroness of invention, weaving, various crafts, and martial metalwork and martial craft. She invented all sorts of womanly arts. She invented numbers, the trumpet, the chariot, and navigation. Athena taught mankind to yoke oxen, having invented the plow and rake. She taught the breeding and taming of horses. Like Artemis and Hestia, Athena is a virgin Goddess.
Hermes ( ΕΡΜΗΣ ) Pronounced : ĕr-MEES, accent on the second syllable and rolling the r very slightly.
Hermes is the great herald. He is the angel or messenger of Zeus. He also performs this task for others of the high gods in all the three realms. Thus he is a great god of speech; he is the deity who bestows skill, cleverness, and eloquence in language and communication, as well as gracefulness in social interactions and persuasion. Hermes is the messenger who delivers to man the dreams sent by Zeus in sleep. He is the psycho pomp, the great escort, who guides the souls of the dead as they embark on their journey between lives. He is the great friend of mankind and the protector of slaves as well as their liberator. The interests of Hermes include commerce and measures and weights, and thus he bestows wealth, especially unexpected good fortune. He watches over roads and protects travelers. Thus, statues of the god were erected at forks in roads and doors and gates. Hermes is associated with gymnastic games and is the patron of the gymnasium. Hermes invented the military arts, numbers and the alphabet, and the science of astronomy. A pastoral god, he protects the flocks and bestows fertility to sheep and protection to shepherds and pastures.
Apollon ( ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ) Pronounced ah-POH-lohn.
Apollon speaks out the unfailing testament of his father Zeus, at whose right hand he sits. He is the god of truth for he never tells a lie. He is the patron of the divine, prophets and oracles. Zeus speaks through Apollon and Apollon speaks through his oracles. He is the god of light, who has dominion over the sun (Helios) itself. He is not the personification of the sun, despite what some ancient literature would have us believe; he simply has dominion over it, especially it’s light. The actual sun god is Helios. He is the great god of enlightenment, fostering everything which brings about understanding: reason, education, logic, knowledge, and every kind of expansive thinking. Like his sister Artemis, Apollon possesses the bow and arrow. He rules over the realms of archery. He is believed to use his arrows to both bring disease upon men and boys and relieve them of it. He is a skilled musician who plays the cithara, a type of lyre. Apollon is involved with all which is splendid, music, song, poetry, theatre, dance, science, astronomy, history, and literature.
Artemis (ΑΡΤΕΜΙΣ) Pronounced: AHR-tæ-mees
Like Athena and Hestia, Artemis is a virgin goddess. She is unblemished and overflowing with wholesomeness, energy, and health, all of which she bestows on mortals. She is the patron of the wilderness and the animals that call it their home. She prefers to run through the countryside, forests and mountains with her entourage of maidens and hunting dogs. Artemis protects children generally, young girls before they marry, and the sucklings and young of wildlife. She assists in childbirth and protects the flocks of herdsmen. Artemis has dominion over the moon (Selene) itself. She is not the personification of the moon, despite what some ancient literature would have us believe; she simply has dominion over it, especially it’s light and the effect it has on nature. The actual moon goddess is Selene. She is the huntress who pursues game and like her brother, she possesses the bow and arrow. She is believed to use her arrows to both bring disease upon women and girls and relieve them of it. She can be seen in the iconography hunting and is, therefore, the goddess of the chase.
Aphrodite ( ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗ ) Pronounced ah-froh-DEE-tee, roll the 'r' slightly; the d (δέλτα) is pronounced like the soft th in ‘this’
Aphrodite is the great goddess of sexuality and beauty. She is said to be the most beautiful and desirable of all the goddesses and no one, except Athena, Hestia and Artemis, can ignore her powers. She is often associated with the sea because of the mythology that she was born from the foam which arose from the severed genitals of Ouranos which fell into the ocean, and, thus, the scallop-shell is associated with her. Aphrodite is the personification of nature's generative ability. Thus, she is popularly believed to be the goddess of love and procreation, and thought of as the most beautiful and graceful of the gods. Like the Goddess Hera, Aphrodite governs and blesses marriage. She possesses a girdle or belt which has the ability to attract the object of one's desire to the one who wears it. The poppy flower as well as the rose, myrtle, and the apple are sacred to her. The dove and the swan are birds which are sacred to the goddess, as well as swallows and sparrows.
Ares ( ΑΡΗΣ ) Pronounced: AH-rees.
Ares is the deity who presides over courage and war. According to the mythology, Eris or strife, the sister of Ares, calls forth war supported by her many children, and that Zeus, who has dominion over fate, directs its course. Ares is accompanied by his sons Deimos (Fear) and Phobus (Strife) and his other sister Enyo, the goddess of battle. It is said that Ares loves war. He is known to relish in the confusion and roar of battle, and thus he confronts these struggles with great force and pleasure. And because he has dominion over war, over battles, over struggles, he loves and understands it. The greeks were ambivalent toward him. He embodies the physical valor necessary for success in war but can also personify sheer brutality and blood-lust. An association with Ares endows places, objects and other deities with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality.
The Question of Dionysus and Hades (Plouton)
Many sources include Dionysus as one of the Olympians. Those who promote this belief say that Hestia stepped down from her seat and gave it to Dionysus. This silly idea was concocted by English poet and novelist Robert Graves. There is no evidence of this idea from antiquity and it is not even viewed as worthy of discussion by teachers and scholars. For many reasons, the idea does not make any sense at all. The tradition held by many is strictly Orphic. While Dionysus is not an Olympian, he is incredibly important. He is the great son of Zeus but he is not an Olympian God!
Although Hades is a major Greek god and was the brother of the first generation of Olympians (Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia), his realm is the underworld, far from Olympus, and thus he was not usually considered to be one of the Olympians.
Dionysus ( ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΣ ) Pronounced: The D in Dionysus is pronounced like the soft th in thee, not like the hard th in thesis. The accent is on the second syllable: thee-OH-nee-sohs.) Dionysus is commonly called by the name Vákkhos (Βάκχος) or Anglicized as Bacchus.
Dionysus is the god of wine, vegetation, pleasure, festivity, madness and wild frenzy. He is depicted as either an older, bearded god or an effeminate, long-haired youth. His attributes include the thyrsos (a pine-cone tipped staff), a drinking cup and a crown of ivy. He is usually accompanied by a troop of Satyrs and Mainades (wild female devotees). The origins of theater in the west have their roots in ancient Greece, with their source the festivals of Dionysus called the Rural Dionýsia. It is said that the plays began as performances of religious hymns by groups of men in goat-masks, the goat being sacred to the god. Dionysus is described as the god of drunkenness and irrationality. He is often contrasted with his brother Apollon who exemplifies moderation and reason. According to the orphic theology, Zeus conceived his son, Dionysus, who came to mankind with his mysteries to free them from the sorrowful cycle of births. Dionysus is the action of Zeus working on earth in a plan to save us from our suffering.
Hades ( Ἅιδης ) Pronounced: HAY deez and / or Plouton ( Πλούτων ) Pronounced: PLOO-tohn
Hades is the king of the underworld and god of the dead. Not only does he have patronage over the souls of the dead but is a terrestrial (chthonic) deity as well. He presides over funeral rites and defends the right of the dead to due burial. Hades is also the god of the hidden wealth of the earth, from the fertile soil which nourishes the seed-grain, to the mined wealth of gold, silver and other metals. Hades is depicted as a dark-bearded, regal god. He is depicted as either Aidoneus, enthroned in the underworld, holding a bird-tipped scepter, or as Plouton (Pluton), the giver of wealth, pouring fertility from a cornucopia. The Romans named him Dis, or Pluto, the Latin form of his Greek title Plouton, "the Lord of Riches”.
THE PRIMORDIAL GODS
THE FIRST GENERATION OF GODS
Achlys- The goddess and personification of the death-mist--the clouding of the eyes preceding death, goddess of poisons. The personification of misery and sadness. Said to have existed before Chaos itself.
Aether - The god and personification of light and the upper atmosphere.
Aion- The god and personification of eternity, personifying cyclical and unbounded time.
Ananke- The goddess and personification of inevitability, compulsion, and necessity.
Chaos- The goddess and personification of nothingness from which all of existence sprang. Depicted as a void. Initially genderless, later on described as female.
Chronus- The god and personification of empirical time, sometimes equated with Aion. Not to be confused with the Titan Cronos (Kronos), the father of Zeus.
Erebus- The personification of darkness and shadow.
Gaia – The goddess and personification of the earth. The ancestral mother of all life. Mother of the titans and wife of Ouranos.
Hemera- The goddess and personification of the day.
Hypnos – The god and personification of sleep. Brother of Thanatos.
Nemesis- The goddess and personification of retribution. Also called Rhamnousia or Rhamnusia
Nesoi - The goddesses and personifications of the islands and seas. They were thought to have been ‘Ourea’ who were cast under the sea during one of Poseidon's rages.
Nyx - The goddess and personification of the night.
Ourea- The gods and personifications of the mountains. the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.
Phanes- A first-born god of light who was said to emerge from a void or a watery abyss and gave birth to the universe. Orphic tradition states that Phanes passed the sceptre to Nyx; she later gave the sceptre to her son Ouranos; Cronus seized the sceptre from his father Ouranos; and finally the sceptre held by Cronus was seized by Zeus, who holds it at present.
Pontus- The first sea god, father of the fish and other sea creatures. Husband of Thalassa.
Tartarus- Both a deity and a place in the underworld. The deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.
Thalassa- The goddess and personification of the sea and consort of Pontus.
Thanatos - God and personification of death. Brother to Hypnos (Sleep) and in some cases Moros (Doom).
Ouranus (Uranus) - The god and personification of the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities. According to Hesiod, Uranus was the son and husband of Gaia (Earth), with whom he fathered the first generation of Titans.
THE SECOND GENERATION OF GODS
Anchiale- Titan goddess who perhaps represented the warmth of fire.
Anytus- One of the younger titans or curetes. Anytus was said to be an attendant of the goddess Demeter who fostered her arcadian daughter Despoine.
Asteria- Titan goddess who presided over the night, stars and nocturnal prophecy. She was the mother of the goddess Hecate. After the fall of the titans, Asteria was pursued by Zeus and but leapt into the sea to escape him where she was transformed into the island of delos.
Astraeus- Titan god of the dusk, he married Eos, goddess of the dawn. Together as nightfall and daybreak they produced many children who are associated with what occurs in the sky during twilight. He was originally a titan god of the stars, the winds, and the art of astrology. He is the father of the four directional winds and the five wandering stars (the planets).
Atlas- Originally a titan god of astronomy and the revolution of the heavenly constellations. After the titan war he was arrested by Zeus and condemned to bear the heavens upon his shoulders.
Aura- Titan goddess of the breeze and the fresh, cool air of early morning.
Clymene- Titan goddess of fame and renown. She was the wife of Iapetos and mother of Prometheus.
Coeus- Titan god who presided over the axis of heaven in the north around which the constellations revolve. At the end of the titan war, he was confined by Zeus into tartarus.
Crius- Titan god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year. Associated with the constellation Aries. He was later cast into tartarus by Zeus. Crius was sometimes named as a leader of the Gigantes who rebelled against the rule of Zeus.
Cronos - The youngest of the titans, the son of Οuranos (Uranus) and Gaia. He was married to Rhea, by whom he became the father of Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon and Zeus, who are known collectively as the Cronidae. Cronos should not be confused with Chronus.
Curetes- A group of shield clashing daimones who came to the aid of Rhea to act as guardians of her infant son Zeus. The child was hidden in a cave on Mount Ida in crete. They drowned out his cries with a frenzied dance of clashing spears and shields.
Dione- Titan goddess who presides over the oracle at Dodona alongside Zeus. Sometimes named the mother of Aphrodite in some sources.
Eos- Titan goddesses who is the personification of the dawn. She is the mother of the wandering stars (the planets) and the four directional winds by the titan Astraeus who represents the dusk.
Epimetheus- Titan god who was appointed with the task of creating the beasts of the earth. His wife was Pandora, the first woman, as a means to deliver evil into the house of man. Despite the warnings of his brother Prometheus, Epimetheus happily received her as his bride, but as soon as she arrived she lifted the lid of a jar entrusted to her by the gods, releasing a plague of harmful daimones (spirits) to trouble mankind.
Eurybia- Titan goddess who represented the power of the sea and rising of the constellations.
Eurynome- Titan goddess who was believed to rule over earth's flowery meadows and pastures. Her true identity isn’t fully known. Some sources say she was the first titan queen who ruled beside the titan Ophion who were both eventually replaced by Cronos and Rhea. She is also said to be the mother of the three lovely graces by Zeus.
Hecate / Hekate- Titan goddess of boundaries, crossroads, witchcraft, ghosts and necromancy. She supported the olympians in the titan war and ended up retained all of her privileges. Revered as a goddess of great honor, she was given domain over the sky, earth, and sea. Hecate is associated with the mythology of the eleusian mysteries. She and Helios, the sun, were the only witnesses to the abduction of Persephone. Feeling bad for Demeter, Hecate assisted her in her search for her daughter with flaming torches.
Helios - Titan god and personification of the sun. He is said to ride across the sky in a chariot drawn by four fiery, winged horses. He is brother to the goddess Selene (moon). He supported the Olympians in the titan war and retained all of his privileges as a solar deity. He is a guardian of oaths and also the god of sight.
Hyperion- Titan god of light, and of the cycles of time measured by the lights of heaven -- the sun, the moon and the dawn. Hyperion was one of the four brother titans who held Ouranos fast while Cronus castrated him with the sickle. At the end of the titan war he was cast into the pit of tartarus by Zeus.
Iapetos- Titan god of mortality and the allotment of the mortal life-span. He was cast into tartarus by Zeus at the end of the titan war.
Lelantos- Titan god of the breezes of the air.
Leto- Titan goddess of motherhood, womanly demure and the night. She is the mother of the twin gods Apollo and Artemis by Zeus.
Menoitios- Titan god of violent anger and rash action. Zeus blasted him into Erebus with a thunderbolt, where he became a bondsman of Hades.
Metis- Titan goddess of memory and good counsel who was swallowed by Zeus. The Mother of Athena.
Mnemosyne- Titan goddess of memory, words and language. She was the mother of the nine muses by Zeus.
Oizys - Goddess of misery, anxiety, grief, and depression.
Okeanos- Titan god of the oceans. Husband of Tethys and father of the rivers and lakes. According to Hesiod, Oceanus sent his daughter Styx, with her children Zelus Envy), Nike (Victory), Cratos (Power), and Bia (Force), to fight on Zeus' side against the titans. During the war Hera was sent to Oceanus and Tethys for safekeeping.
Perses- Titan god of destruction. Father of Hecate.
Phoebe- Titan goddess of bright intellect and was the original prophet of the oracle of delphi. She was the grandmother of the gods Apollo and Artemis.
Prometheus- Titan god of forethought. He is best known for defying the gods by stealing fire from them and giving it to humanity in the form of technology, knowledge, and more generally, civilization. In some versions of the myth he is also credited with the creation of humanity from clay.
Rhea – Titan goddess who was the mother of the gods, and goddess of female fertility, motherhood, and generation. Rhea was the wife of the titan Cronos and queen of heaven. She had six children with Cronos: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus in that order.
Selene -Titan goddess and personification of the moon. She rode across the sky in a silver chariot drawn by two white horses. Her brother is the god Helios (sun). She supported the Olympians in the Titan war and retained all of her privileges as a lunar deity. Selene is best known for her affair with the beautiful mortal Endymion.
Styx- Titan goddess and river that forms the boundary between the earth and the underworld. The rivers acheron, cocytus, lethe, phlegethon, and styx all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which sometimes is also called the Styx. According to Herodotus, the river Styx originates near Pheneus. Styx is also a goddess with prehistoric roots in Greek mythology as a daughter of Tethys, after whom the river is named and because of whom it had miraculous powers.
Tethys- Titan goddess of the sources of fresh-water. She was known as the great nurse of life and spawned the rivers, clouds and springs. She was the wife of the titan Oceanus, and the mother of the river gods and the Oceanids.
Theia- Titan goddess of sight and by extension the goddess who endowed gold, silver and gems with their brilliance and intrinsic value. She was the mother of Helios, Selene and Eos.
Themis- Titan goddess of the natural order, divine law and tradition. By Zeus she was the mother of the Fates and of the seasons, and has a seat by his side on Olympus as adviser.
A group of winged gods associated with love and sexual intercourse. They are part of Aphrodite's retinue.
Anteros - The god of requited love. He punishes those who scorned love and the advances of others, and is the avenger of unrequited love.
Eros - The winged god of love, lust and sex. In the earliest account, he is a primordial god, while in later accounts he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares.
Hedylogos - The god of sweet-talk and flattery. He is not mentioned in any existing literature, but is depicted on ancient Greek vase paintings.
Hermaphroditus - The god of hermaphrodites, effeminacy and androgyny. He is the son of Hermes and Aphrodite.
Himeros - The god of desire and unrequited love.
Hymenaeus / Hymen - The god of weddings and marriage.
Pothos - The god of longing or yearning.
THE NINE MUSES
The inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts. They are considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, and myths that are related orally for centuries in ancient Greek culture.
Calliope - Epic poetry
Clio - History
Euterpe - Flutes and music
Thalia - Comedy and pastoral poetry
Melpomene - Tragedy
Terpsichore - Dance
Erato - Love, poetry and lyric poetry
Polyhymnia - Sacred poetry
Urania - Astronomy
The Oneiroi are the dark-winged spirits of dreams which emerge each night like a flock of bats from their cavernous home in Erebos. The Oneiroi passed through one of two gates (pylai). The first of these, made of horn, was the source of the prophetic god-sent dreams, while the other, constructed of ivory, was the source of dreams which were false and without meaning.
Epiales - The god and personified spirit of nightmares. He was also known as the melas oneiros "black dream"
Ikelos - The god and personification of people seen in prophetic dreams;
Morpheus - God of dreams. The name signifies the fashioner or moulder, because he shaped or formed the dreams which appeared to the sleeper.
Phantasos- God of strange and surreal dreams. They are said to be symbolic and of a deep meaningful nature.
Phobetor- God of nightmares.
THE FOUR SEASONS:
They are the daughters of the titans Helios and Selene, and are described as the four handmaidens of Hera:
THE TWELVE HOURS:
Auge, first light (initially not part of the set),
Anatolê or Anatolia, sunrise,
Mousikê or Musica, the morning hour of music and study,
Gymnastikê, Gymnastica or Gymnasia, the morning hour of education, training, gymnastics/exercise,
Nymphê or Nympha, the morning hour of ablutions (bathing, washing),
Sponde, libations poured after lunch,
Elete, prayer, the first of the afternoon work hours,
Aktê, Acte or Cypris, eating and pleasure, the second of the afternoon work hours,
Hesperis, end of the afternoon work hours, start of evening,
Arktos or Arctus, night sky, constellation (initially not part of the set).
Female spirits who represent different elements of nature.
Oceanids (Nymphs of the ocean),
Nereids (Sea nymphs),
Dryads and Hamad Dryads ( Nymphs of ash trees)
Oreads (Mountain Nymphs),
Epipotamides (River nymphs),
Naiads (Nymphs of brooks, lakes and springs),
Crenids (Nymphs of springs),
Limnades (Nymphs of lakes, marshes and swamps),
Nyseides ( Bacchant Nymphs),
Potameides ( Nymphs of fountains, lakes rivers, and springs),
Limoniades ( Nymphs of meadows of flowers) ,
Napaeae ( Nymphs of glens).
THE CHARITIES (The Graces)
Goddesses of charm, beauty and nature.
Thalia - Good Cheer
THE MORAI / THREE FATES
The three goddesses who control the thread of life of every mortal from birth to death.
Clotho (Nona) Spins the “thread” of human fate.
Lachesis(Decuma) Dispenses it.
Atropos (Morta) Cuts the thread (thus determining the individual's moment of death).
MINOR GODS AND GODDESSES
Achelous - Oldest of the river gods. Son of Oceanus and Tethys.
Acheron- A river god. Son of Oceanus and Tethys.
Adrestia- Goddess of the revolt and equilibrium between good and evil.
Aeolus- God and ruler of the winds.
Afer- the south-west wind.
Agathodaemon- A spirit of vineyards and fields, providing luck, happiness and health.
Aidos - Goddess of modesty, shame, reverence and respect. A companion of Nemesis.
Alethia - Goddess of truth.
Alpheius- River god of Elis. He pursued Arethusa until she was changed into a spring by Artemis.
Amphitrite - Goddess and queen of the seas. The wife of Poseidon. Mother of Triton.
Angelos- Daughter of Zeus and Hera. Possibly an early form of Hecate. Connected with the underworld.
Arte - Goddess of virtue.
Aristaeus - Protector of beekeepers.
Asclepius- God of healing and medicine. Son of Apollo. He was struck down and killed by Zeus for bringing the dead back to life. He became the constellation Ophiuchus.
Asopus- A river god.
Asterion- A river god. Judged the contest between Hera and Poseidon for the patronage of Argos.
Astraea- Goddess of justice.
Ate - Goddess of evil, mischief and moral blindness.
Boreas - God of the north wind.
Caerus- God of opportunities and favorable moments.
Cephisus- A river god. Father of Narcissus.
Cer - Goddess of violent death.
Charis - Goddess of delight.
Chione – Goddess of snow. Daughter of Boreas.
Chloris - Goddess of flowers. Wife of Zephyrus.
Corus - God of the north-western wind.
Crimisus - A river god. Son of Oceanus and Tethys.
Cybele - Anatonian mother goddess who was closely associated with Rhea and Gaia.
Deimos- God of terror. Son of Ares and Aphrodite.
Dike - Goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement
Doris - A sea goddess. Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.
Dysnomia - The spirit of lawlessness.
Eirene - Goddess of peace.
Eleithyia - Goddess of childbirth. Daughter of Hera and Zeus.
Elpis - Personification of hope.
Enyo - Goddess of battle, destruction, conquest, and blood lust who accompanies Ares on the battlefield. Daughter of Zeus and Hera.
Eosphorus - God of the morning star.
Eris - Goddess of discord and strife. Daughter of Zeus and Hera. Started the Trojan war by creating the apple of discord.
Eunomia - Goddess of lawfulness and good order.
Euphrosyne - Goddess of joy and festivities.
Eurus - God of the east wind / south-east wind.
Granicus- A river god. Granicus was a river of Ida near Troy.
Harmonia - Goddess of harmony and concord. Daughter of Ares and Aphrodite.
Hebe - Goddess of youth. Cup-bearer to the gods and daughter of Zeus and Hera. Wife of Herakles.
Hesperus - God of the evening star.
Horcus - The personification of the curse that would befall upon any person that broke an oath they had taken.
Hygieia - Goddess of good health.
Iaso- Goddess of healing.
Limos - Goddess of starvation and famine.
Iris - Goddess of rainbows and the messenger of Hera.
Kakia - Goddess of vice.
Ktesios - Spirit who guarded storerooms.
Melicertes - God of ports and harbours.
Moros- Personification of doom.
Nereus - The old man of the sea. Son of Pontus.
Nike - Goddess of victory. A constant companion of Athena.
Nile- The River-God of Aigyptos (Egypt) in North Africa.
Notus - God of the south wind.
Pan - God of nature, the wild, shepherds, flocks, beekeepers, goats, of mountain wilds, and is often associated with sexuality.
Peitho - Goddess of persuasion
Persephone - Queen of the underworld. Goddess of the dead. Wife of Hades and daughter of Demeter. She is the embodiment of spring and the personification of vegetation and crops.
Pheme - Goddess of rumour and report.
Phobos - God of fear and terror. Son of Ares and Aphrodite.
Phyllis - God of escape.
Ponos - God of hard labour and toil.
Praxidice- Goddess of enterprises, evil deeds and their punishment.
Priapus - God of fertility, vegetables, nature, livestock, fruit, beekeeping, sex, genitals, masculinity and gardens.
Psyche - Goddess of the soul.
Satyrs - Half-human woodland spirits, with the legs and feet of goats. Followers of Pan and Dionysus. They have hairy bodies with short horns on their foreheads. Older Satyrs were called Sileni.
Telesphorus- God of convalescence.
Thaumas - God of the awe-striking wonder of the sea. Embodiment of the sea's dangerous aspects
Triptolemus - One of the original priests of Demeter, one of the first men to learn the secret rites and mysteries of Eleusinian Mysteries. When he died he was deified as the god who presided over the sowing of grain-seed and the milling of wheat.
Triton - The messenger of the sea. Son of Poseidon and Amphitrite.
Tyche - Goddess of fortune and luck.
Zephyrus - God of the west wind. Husband of Chloris.
FOR A LIST OF ROMAN GODS CLICK HERE
FOR A LIST OF NORSE GODS CLICK HERE
SOURCES: Mythology (75th Anniversary Illustrated Edition): Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes by Edith Hamilton and Jim Tierney / The Greeks: A Global History by Roderick Beaton / The Library of Greek Mythology by Robin Hard / Mythology: Who's Who in Greek and Roman Mythology by E.M. Berens / Apollodorus' Library and Hyginus' Fabulae: Two Handbooks of Greek Mythology by R. Scott Smith and Stephen M. Trzaskoma / The Iliad by Homer, Adam Nicholson, et al. / The Odyssey by Homer and Emily Wilson /
I was talking with a friend recently about Greek Mythology, and while talking about the gods I asked both them and myself this question:
Why is Ares the god of war when Athena is, too?
I’d seen many posts summarise it as “Ares is the god of war, Athena is the god of Smart War”, but that never made much sense to me. What was even the point of having Ares around?
I figured, maybe he was originally worshipped in a different capacity and he had a war epithet which gained more popularity than his others.
Intrigued, I searched, and things got weirder - Zeus is the god of lightning, skies, kings; Poseidon the god of the sea, water, horses; Athena is the god of knowledge, maths, war; Ares is the god of…war.
I continued looking into it - he was kidnapped, either as an infant or an adult and wasn’t rescued for a year - he is a coward, despite being the god of war - he is bloodthirsty, violent, cruel, yet in the few stories he appears in he suffers humiliation - nobody likes him, not even his parents - he does not choose sides.
Even Hades isn’t hated that much. And what was with him and Athena?
Athena is the god of battle strategies, she is level headed, noble, and just. She is the god of war.
…but war isn’t like that, is it?
War is not born from nobility, it is born from hatred, which is born from fear cowardice. It is bloodthirsty, and it is plentiful and drown-able, regardless of who it is spilled from, never choosing a side. It is bruised skin and broken bones.
Athena is there when the bright eyed young man is being deployed into his first mission, excited to save the world.
Who stands there when that same boy watches as his best friend bleeds out, as he realises he was hypnotised into a patriotic fairy tale of heroism that was weaved by men who couldn’t care if he lived or died?
Who stands there when the blood of strangers intermingles on wet concrete, the breaths of rivals, fuelled by hatred born from none but the fear of the other, dissipate into the night?
Who stands there when nobility has been stripped, when temples have been torn down and badges torn off, when stripes on a sleeve mean nothing?
An uncomfortable truth, repeatedly trying to get the upper hand against the romanticisation of war, or genocide, calamity and carnage.
An angry god, repeatedly trying to get the upper hand against the goddess that represents the safe lie, the preferred delusion.
A being born between two hateful deities, conflicted and abhorrent; both violent and fearful.
Ares is the true god of war.
This week’s winning prompt from my weekly sketch poll on Patreon: Nyx from greek mythology. :)
Persephone: *angry for some reason*
Hades: *goes to her* did I do something?
Persephone: You didn’t do anything my mother did.
Hades: *lets out a breath*
Hades: I wrote a 10 page long heart felt apology about how sorry I am incase I did something and was about to make it a few pages longer if you told me what I did
Athena: okay, how would you rate your pain?
Dionysus: zero stars
Dionysus: would not recommend
Anthesteria was one of the four major Athenian festivals dedicated to Dionysôs–the son of Zevs and either Semelê, Dionê, or Selênê and the Olympian God of wine, vegetation, pleasure, festivity, and wild frenzy. Anthesteria was celebrated on the eleventh through thirteenth days of the Attikan lunar month of Anthesterion, which would be understood today as the lunar cycle spanning the late January/early February full moon. This festival celebrated the beginnings of Spring, fertility, and also gave homage to the Cult of the Dead throughout its three day span.
Each day of Anthesteria has a separate name with different themes of praxis. The first day of Anthesteria is referred to as Pithoigia, or literally “the Jar-Opening.” On this day, children under the age of three were adorned with wreaths made out of the first flowers of the year and the jars of wine from the year prior were opened and libations to Dionysôs were aptly performed. It was tradition for the entire household–including slaves–to join in the festivities of Anthesteria beginning on the day of Pithoigia. This is one of the biggest instances in ancient Greek culture of social order being interrupted for certain festivals. There is an alternate argument proposed by Jane Ellen Harrison that the jars being referred to during Pithoigia were not meant to be understood as wine-jars, but instead urns used in burial rites, making Pithoigia being the day of “opening the graves.” Personally, I feel that Pithoigia could be in reference to both the opening of jars and urns, considering the multitudes of use pithoi had. It would not be too off-base to make an educated assumption that the opening of wine-jars and burial urns would initiate both the festivities of Anthesteria and likewise the invitation of the dead amongst the living.
The second day of Anthesteria was referred to as Khoës, or literally “The Pouring.” The general drinking festivities of Anthesteria continued on this day, but there is also a very large implication that Khoës was a day with more of an erotic undertone. Outside of previously mentioned eroticism, festival-observers would play drinking games and pour wine onto the graves of their deceased loved ones. A very popular Anthesteria drinking game was simply gathering a group of people and seeing who was able to empty their cup of wine the quickest. Khoës appears to have been a day of friendship and connection, it would seem.
While on the topic of Khoës, I wanted to speak on an aspect that many people don’t reference when discussing the historical praxis involved in Anthesteria. This would be the divine marriage ceremony between the ritual Queen of Athens and that of Dionysôs. This particular ceremony involved an array of characters. First, we have the Archon Basileus who plays the role of Dionysôs. The Archon Basileus was the last remnant of an Athenian monarch and held a similarly high position to the Archon Eponymos and Polemarchos. The role of the Archon Basileus was basically to oversee the organization of religious festivals, ceremonies, and trials of homicide. Next we have the Basilinna, who was the wife of the Archon Basileus, The Basilinna was the ritual Queen of Athens, and her role was to be the bride of Dionysôs in the ceremony. This particular position was seen as immensely important to the well-being of the city considering this particular marriage ceremony was enacted as a method of keeping the city safe from various threats to the city. And finally we have the elected Gerarai–a group of fourteen priestesses chosen by the Archon Basileus to tend to the Basilinna and later for her to swear an oath to them prior to the procession.
Ludwig Deubner has proposed a theoretical reconstruction of the events of this ceremony, but we must understand that the ceremony in and of itself was very secretive and wrapped in the confines of Athenian mystery rites. Deubner proposes the ceremony begins with Dionysôs (played by the Archon Basileus) being taken to the sanctuary at Limnai where he was then married to the Basilinna. After their marriage ceremony, the Basilinna would swear an oath to the Gerarai and the newly-wedded Ritual Queen of Athens was taken in procession with her Divine Husband to the Boukoleion where their marriage was consummated. It is heavily suggested that the consummation of marriage between the Basilinna and Dionysôs was erotic in origin, and could have even involved ritual intercourse within the inner-chamber of the sanctuary. Walter Burkert, a German scholar of Greek mythology and cult, has speculated that this ceremonial union is a recreation of the yielding of Ariadne to Dionysôs by Theseus during their escape from Minoan Crete.
The last day of Anthesteria is called Khytroi, or “The Pots.” This day was the festival for the Cult of the Dead. On this day, there were to be no offerings for any non-chthonic Gods, and theaters were closed from performing any shows. Citizens of Athens would prepare separate food to be given as an offering to both Hermês Psykhopompos (in his aspect of Chthonic Psychopomp) and to the dead, which no mortal was supposed to taste. After these offerings were given the dead were begged to leave the city, with the proverb “Out of doors, Keres! It is no longer Anthesteria!” After the banishment of the spirits, the Athenians would continue their general Anthesteria festivities of drinking and merriment.
I want to note that both Pithoigia and Khoës, while accepted as the more light-hearted days of Anthesteria, were known to be both “unlucky,” and “defiled.” While spirits of the dead were invited to festivities, there were also precautions taken to keep them from coming too close. Temples were roped off, pitch was smeared on doors of homes, and people chewed leaves of hawthorn and buckthorn.
I recognize that modern celebration of Anthesteria cannot be as intricate as its ancient Athenian counterpart, but there are ways now that it can still be celebrated. You can celebrate through ancestral veneration and opening up new bottles of wine and performing libations to Dionysôs. If you are unable to drink wine, non-alcoholic drinks work just as well. You could also leave offerings and read the Orphic and Homeric Hymns to Dionysôs and maybe even read some plays about him. It is simply a time to reflect on deceased loved ones, the oncoming of spring, and the celebration of Dionysôs.
Below is a link to a web-published version of this essay that includes my sources in footnotes. Unfortunately, it has no photos because I am boring.
⁂god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the Sun and light, poetry⁂
🌱🐼🌱𝘏𝘰𝘸 𝘵𝘰 𝘒𝘯𝘰𝘸 𝘞𝘩𝘦𝘯 𝘌𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘋𝘦𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘦𝘴 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘛𝘳𝘺𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘵𝘰 𝘊𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘢𝘤𝘵 𝘠𝘰𝘶 🌱🐼🌱
The way a deity contacts you is special to that deity and will always find a way to you even if you ignore the signs at first, they will contact you until you figure out who it is and then you can decide whether or not you want to work with them.
Seeing very specific signs and synchronicities multiple times can definitely be a sign that someone is trying to talk to you, however it can be a spirit guide, entities, the universe, spirit, entities, so it's somewhat hard to tell if a deity is trying to contact you but after a while it gets easier. The first thing you want to do is pay very close attention to the signs that you are seeing . Specific signs relate too specific deities however some do cross over. For example a few signs a person who has the interest of Athena will see a lot of signs to do with hunting such as a bow and arrow, wolves, owls, snakes, armor, helmets, spears, especially things related to her mythology. With all of that being said, some signs do cross over for example Apollo, her brother also sports the bow and arrow, pythons, ravens, etc.
For the most part, the deity might visit you in a dream, a vision, or you'd see a lot more content about them like a random post about Thor on instagram, or a weirdly elaborate woven blanket with the likes of Zeus for sale at ross. Anyhow you look at it your deity will reach out to you in every way possible.
So now that you've figured out which deity is calling you, how do you answer them? Well first, you may want to look deeper into their mythology, many deities take that as an interest of you wanting to work with them, but don't be afraid the contract isn't signed yet. What you want to do is figure out what kind of deity they are, what they stand for, what they despise, what they specialize in, and especially any possible reasons for why they want to work with you. A perfect example is Loki, the god of mischief. He loves to cause chaos and minor (large) inconveniences to others but not without a cause. For the most part he would want to work with someone who is having a hard time in life I think especially in family matters. The most important thing to know about Loki is to keep him happy, basically by doing things he wants like lighting a candle or leaving him an offering at his alter. Of course doing your own research is more important that me just telling you what the gods are like because my version of Loki will definitely be a different version of your Loki because of our needs being vastly different.
So you've completed all of your research, what next? Next is vetting the deity. If you don't do divination, maybe this whole process isn't for you but if you do divination keep going. You're going to want to thoroughly vet the entity that is trying to connect to you because many lower vibrational spirits do attempt to trick people into contracts by disguising themselves as deities and that's not something you want to deal with. Use your cars, use the pendulum, use your crystals, use your crystal ball, use your scrying mirror, use all forms of divination and cleansing methods you have available to make sure that entity is for sure who they say they are. Don't be afraid of the deity losing interest, they see it as you being careful and are respectful of the process. Next is building an altar, again every deity is different and through your research you should be able to find instructions to build an altar but for learning purposes, my alter only requires the candle related to my deities favorite thing, an offering bowl or plate, a designated corner or table, and an offering of one of your deities favorite things. What you'd need to do next depends massively on the deity but starting off by praying to them is always a good start. Mention that you've seen their signs and have taken up an interest and state the honor of working with them. Light their candle and give them the offering. You'll know if it worked if you start to see the signs even more, when they reach out, or if you have a specific dream of them.
What next you ask? That's up to the deity! Next would come when they reach out to accept you, you will have the chance to tell them what you're looking for assuming they don't already know and they will begin working with you literally that second. A deity can help you gain confidence, make strides in your spiritual journey, and many other things as long as it aligns with who they are and what they do. As long as you make offerings, light their candles, and be respectful they will keep working with you. Once the goal is complete they will do some sort of a goodbye ceremony where they just- say goodbye, congratulate you on your progress and wish you luck and let you know that you can still contact them if anything. Usually a deity leaving is a very and I mean very emotional experience, and most people often bargain and cry which is ok that is your emotion but, keep in mind that they are not full gone they still watch over and protect you and while they may not be there they still are around. Some deities do stay for life, and some do get passed on to your children if you decide to have them and that just means that you are fully the child of that deity, not saying that the deity birthed you, but saying that your family has a long history of worshiping that deity.
As some ending notes I think it's good to list some of the benefits of working with deities, especially for those who have an affinity to the spirit world as in those who do honest divination, witchcraft, and people who can connect to the 5D.
Deities never judge. They never get jealous when you work with other deities they in fact encourage it however if two deities do not get along or their mythology clashes like Medusa and Poseidon keep them as far away as possible because so much as leaving their altar in the same room can be disastrous as they'd try to kill each other. They are highly specialized and can do wonders for your specific needs. They act as a magical buff for any spell or protection ward you do. They seek the wellness of their worshipers so unless they think you need to have a lesson they don't like to see you suffer therefore they will step in as much as they can.
Lastly, of course you can choose a deity you want to work with but if it is your first time working with deities or you aren't well versed in deity work, please do not go for high strung super strict and super demanding deities. Go for the more easy going ones because you are likely to make many mistakes your first go around and it's much better to have a forgiving deity instead of having a deity that if angered will have you swallowed whole by spiders in your sleep.
Have fun working with your deity and good luck on your journeys!