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Spirituality in islam: The horizons of the soul: Metaphysical thought

The modern Western world view is said to be founded almost entirely on materialistic notions that exclude or even deny the spiritual or metaphysical dimensions of existence. This is a controversial point, but many socalled Muslim intellectuals who blindly imitate and import what they see as Western, despise and reject their societies’ traditional modes of thinking and living. This is largely because they no longer have any awareness of the spiritual dimension of existence and life. Indeed, those who reduce existence to matter and think only in physical terms can hardly perceive and understand what is metaphysical and spiritual. Moreover, since those who can only imitate are more radical in their borrowed attitudes than the originators, and since imitation often obscures reality, those socalled intellectuals become more radical in rejecting what is spiritual and metaphysical, and lack adequate knowledge of matter and what is material.

Since the spiritual, metaphysical dimension requires us to go beyond our sensations and instincts into deep and vast horizons, materialists neither understand nor like it. In other words, they restrict their thinking only to what they can perceive and experience. Deceiving themselves and others that existence consists only of the material dimension, they present themselves as true intellectuals.

Despite their claims and the assertions of their Western counterparts, it is difficult to accept that Western scientific thought, although primarily materialistic, has always been separate from spirituality and metaphysics. Modern Western civilization is based on the trinity of Greek thought, Roman law, and Christianity. This latter, at least theoretically, contributes a spiritual dimension. The West never completely discarded Platonist thinking, although it failed to reconcile it with positivistic and rationalistic philosophy. It also does not pretend that such thinkers as Pascal and J. Jeans never existed, or exclude Bergson’s intuitivism. Bergson, Eddington, J. Jeans, Pascal, Bernhard Bavink, and Heisenberg are just as important in Western thought as Comte, Darwin, Molescholt, Czolba, and Lamarck. Indeed, it is hard to find an atheist scientist and philosopher before the midnineteenth century.

In contrast, metaphysical thought and spirituality have been almost entirely discarded by many Muslim intellectuals. In the name of certain notions that have been reduced to such simplistic slogans as “enlightenment, Westernization, civilization, modernity, and progress,” metaphysical thought and spiritual life have been denigrated and degraded. Such slogans have also been used to batter traditional Islamic values.

We use “the horizon of hope” to mean traveling beyond the visible dimension of existence, and considering existence as an interrelated whole in the absence of which things and events cannot be perceived as they really are. Nor can its essence and relation with the Creator, as well as the relation between Him and humanity, be grasped. Scientific disciplines that conduct their own discourse largely in isolation from one another and the prevailing materialistic nature of science that has compartmentalized existence and life cannot discover the reality of things, existence, or life.

When such investigations are seen in medicine, for example, people are viewed as being composed of many discrete mechanisms. The consequences are easy to see: Existence is stripped of its meaning and connectedness, and is presented as discrete elements consisting only of matter. However, the only way to fully comprehend and value life and existence is to experience existence through the prism of spirit and metaphysical thinking. Neglecting to do so means forcing reason to comment on things beyond its reach and imprisoning intellectual effort within the confines of senseimpressions. But when we heed the sound of our conscience, or inner world, we perceive that the mind is never content or satisfied with mere senseimpressions.

All the great, enduring, and inclusive modes of thinking developed upon the foundations of metaphysics and spirituality. The whole ancient world was founded and shaped by such sacred texts as the Qur'an, the Bible, the Vedas, and the Upanishads. Denying or forgetting such antimaterialistic Western thinkers, scientists, and philosophers as Kant, Descartes, Pascal, Hegel, and Leibniz means ignoring an essential strand of Western thought.

We can only imagine a new, better world based on knowledge or science if we look at the concept of science through the prism of metaphysics. Muslims have not yet developed a concept of science in its true meaning, namely, one derived from the Qur'an and Islamic traditions primarily shaped by the Qur'an and the hadiths. The application of science or technology by an irresponsible, selfish minority has engendered more disasters than good.

If Muslims want to end their long humiliation and help establish a new, happy world at least on a par with the West, they must replace oldfashioned positivistic and materialistic theories with their own thoughts and inspirations. Aware of their past pains and troubles, they must exert great efforts to define these problems and cure them.

A true concept of science will join spirituality and metaphysics with a comprehensive, inclusive view that affirms the intrinsic and unbreakable relation between any scientific discipline and existence as a whole. Only a concept embracing the whole in its wholeness can be called truly scientific. Seeing existence as discrete elements and trying to reach the whole from these will end up getting swamped in multiplicity. By contrast, embracing the whole and then studying its parts in the light of the whole allows us to reach sound conclusions about the reality of existence.

Spirituality and metaphysics also provide art with their widest dimensions. It fact, art only attains its real identity through spirituality and metaphysics. An artist discovers the inner world of humanity, with all its feelings, excitement, expectations, frustration, and ambitions and discovers how it relates to the outer dimension of existence. The artist then presents these in forms suitable to the medium being used. Art expresses our inner essence, which is in continuous movement to return to its source. In other words, artists unite the inspirations flowing into their spirit from things and events, from all corners of existence. Bringing together all nomena and phenomena, they then present things to us in their wholeness.

Remember that the most important source of science, thinking, and art, even virtues and morality, is metaphysics. All of existence can be perceived with a sound mode of thinking based on pure metaphysics. This allows us to view all of existence as a whole, and to travel through its deeper dimensions. Without spirituality and metaphysics, we cannot build a community on sound foundations; such communities are forced to beg continuously from others. Communities that lack sound metaphysical concepts suffer identity crises.

To build a new, happy world wherein human virtues and values are given due prominence and are effective in shaping policies and aspirations, all people, regardless of religion, must rediscover and reaffirm the spirituality and metaphysics taught in the Godrevealed religions.

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Kind of a stretch to ask, but does anybody have any good exercise routines they can share that help them lose fat (other than cardio cuz that parts covered) but I’m trying to find a good workout routine that helps me have a smaller wait, toned abs, slimmer arms, and slimmer legs with a butt. Idk if it’s even possible to have a workout plan that good. But if anybody has any that at least fit one of the categories please send them my way

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I wonder if you know how many restless nights I have had since I met you. Whether it was your attempts or actions that made me tired and broken. I’ve been reflecting the main problem I have, and it still breaks me. Knowing you, I know you would never cut someone out of your life. You’re too good of a person to do that. Even though it hurts to sit at home and have to think about it all night, I would rather you be happier than me. I think about this a lot. I know it isn’t a good thing, but I could never make you undergo the feeling of failure. You’ve come so far from the past, and I don’t want to be the one to pull you back. I don’t want to make you feel like you failed me or the relationship or anything. It hurts to know when you’re hurting, and I will always try my best to prevent that. In all honesty though, I feel that the problem pushes me away from you. Makes me want to be alone and away from you. Unfortunately, I don’t understand it. You say that we can’t go a week without arguing about it, but that’s because you hang out with her every weekend. I would never tell you what to do or force you to do anything you don’t want to, and I won’t. I know there’s nothing going on, but there is always this feeling within me that bothers me. I also heard tonight that you told her I don’t like you guys hanging out. I would like to know why because right now it’s making me want to feel distant. Is what I said not private? She already talked about it to others, so I thank you for that. I question myself, how many times can we go through the same situation? How much can you or I take? I know you love me, but I also know you need to be there for her. I’d rather be crying and alone than limiting your life and choices. That’s all I can say for now, but I still love you. Even though I feel like I will be the downfall of our relationship because I feel that one day, I won’t be able to keep up. 

grace-tlee
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Daily Hadith

Bismillah Walhamdulillah Was Salaatu Was Salaam ‘ala Rasulillah Narrated Abu Huraira (Radi-Allahu 'anhu):

The Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) said: “Do not wish to meet the enemy, but when you meet (face) the enemy, be patient.”

Bukhari Vol. 4 : No. 266

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9am though

The way i feel about him now is different. I am extremely deeply sad, yet i cant express it. I don cry, not that im not felling like crying because i do. But there is smth idk how to explain, dome kind of barrier? It bothers me. It shouldnt be there. And im starting to doubt whether i love him or not anymore…

It wouldn’t bother me if i stopped loving him. So it might means that i still have feelings for him… i dont know what to think…

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Jingle Bells, Kill ourselves
Peter: dashing through the halls.....
MJ: With my teachers up my ASS
Ned: I have to take a test, AND I REALLY HOPE I PASS
MJ: this school is actually H E L L
Ned: I CAN'T EVEN SPELL
Peter: YOU GET TO YOUR CLASS RIGHT NOW, CAUSE YOU WANNA MAKE THE BELL
Shuri: H E Y!
Ned: JINGLE BELLS
MJ: KILL OURSELVES
Peter: HIT ME WITH A SLEIGH
Ned: I'M SO D O N E
MJ: THIS ISN'T FUN
Peter: THERE GOES MY GPA, YAY!
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ISLAM 101: Muslim Culture and Character: Embracing The World: Charitable Trusts in Medieval Islam

All over the vast Islamic world, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, various services that are fundamentally important to society have been financed and maintained through charitable trusts.

Godliness and virtue is not that you turn your faces towards east or west; but godliness and virtue is to believe in God and the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the Prophets; to spend of your substance out of love for Him for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the liberation of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer and practice regular charity; to fulfill the contracts you have made; and to be persevering and patient in hardship and disease, and throughout all periods of stress. Such are the people who are true (in their faith), and those are they who achieved righteousness, piety, and due reverence for God. (Qur’an 2:177)

All cultures and religions instruct their followers to help the poor and leave behind an everlasting source of good deeds (Dallal 2004, 13-43). Originating from a desire to improve others’ well-being, charity is an altruistic behavior (Becker 1974, 1063-1091) of gift exchanges between individuals that encourages social order and stability (Mauss 1950). This essential principle comprises two main categories in Islam: Zakat, obligatory alms for Muslims with a certain level of wealth, and sadaqa, highly recommended voluntary donations, one of the most popular forms of which are philanthropic foundations.

A philanthropic foundation is “a nongovernmental, nonprofit organization, with assets provided by donors and managed by its own officials, and with income expended for socially useful purposes. Foundation, endowment, and charitable trust are terms used interchangeably to designate these organizations, which can be traced far back in history. They existed in the ancient civilizations of the Middle East, Greece, and Rome. Plato’s Academy (c. 387 BC), for example, was established with an endowment that helped to sustain its existence for some 900 years” (Britannica Online Encyclopedia). Considering that the first shrine on Earth, the Ka’bah, was built by Adam, peace be upon him, and was named the House of God (Qur’an 3:96), the earliest example of such foundations was given by the very first person.

Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta (d.1369) was struck by the dedication of the inhabitants of Damascus to all forms of countless foundations, such as legacies devoted by people who could not travel to Mecca to pay others’ pilgrimage; foundations providing girls from poor backgrounds with all the requirements for their marriage; foundations devoted to purchasing the freedom of Muslim prisoners; others for paying the maintenance of roads, and many more (Ibn Battutah 2006). Once, he saw a young boy drop a porcelain plate, which broke. The passer-bys told the boy to take the pieces to the foundation for utensils. Consequently, the boy got a refund, equal to the value of a new plate. The residents, in their great numbers, also provided endowments for schools, hospitals and mosques. It was a city, Ibn Battuta tells us, where the social spirit was at its optimum.


The word waqf (plural awqaf), means to cause a thing to stop and stand still, to withhold, or to prevent; and the word applies “to endow the property rights of a good [while dedicating its benefits] to the public service perpetually, and to prevent others from obtaining its property rights” (Akgunduz 1996, 77). Awqaf are considered an expression of piety, not because their activities are inherently religious, but because they are governed by a law considered sacred (Kuran 2001, 841-897). In Islamic terminology, waqf is described as the detention of an entity from ownership forever, by considering it as the property of God, while devoting all its possible gifts of income to some charitable purpose for the community.


However defined, waqf institutions stand out as one of the greatest achievements of Islamic civilization. Although this was not a new concept introduced by Islam, the system to allocate, administer, and dispense the usufruct was unique. All over the vast Islamic world, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, various services that are fundamentally important to society have been financed and maintained through awqaf, some of which have even survived for more than a millennium (Cizakca 2000), providing the needy with basic needs such as food, education, and shelter, and improvements like lighthouses, cemeteries, public baths, drinking fountains, mosques, bridges, roads, aqueducts and so on, enhancing peace and harmony (Yalawae and Izah).


The first component of waqf is hayrat, the establishments under waqf property, dedicated to the public; the second is akarat, the revenue resources allocated to facilitate perpetuity (Yediyildiz 1996); the third, waqfiya, is the court-ratified and preserved deeds that specify the uses of income, the beneficiaries, the priorities of expenditure, the people authorized for administration and their powers. The last is the mutawalli (board of directors), responsible for the foundation functioning in accordance with the donors’ intentions, and in charge of maintenance, treasury, administration, and supervision (Baskan 2002). Local characteristics of mutawalli allowed for competition and control, which were keys to efficiency (Kahf).

Once established, the public aims of a waqf become binding, cannot be altered or revoked, even by the founder, and everyone, even the head of state, has to obey these deeds. Eliminating the waqf character of a property entails a complicated process, and is restricted to an exchange of another property of equivalent value and equivalent service to the community, in addition to a local court’s approval. Diverting waqf revenues to other purposes is not within the authority of the waqf administration or a supervisory court. Should a waqf purpose becomes unfeasible, its revenue is spent on the closest purpose available, both conceptually and geographically; and if this is not workable, the benefits go to the needy, which is assumed as the default intent (Kahf).

Some examples

Historical data suggest that foundations were first observed as religious establishments where people worshipped together, followed by other applications in society; some believe that some awqaf were founded by Prophet Abraham, peace be upon him, about 1860 BCE (Dallal 2004, 2). The first waqf in Islam is the Mosque of Quba in Medina, built in 622 AD, upon arrival of God’s Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, who demonstrated the primary examples of awqaf in Islam. He had first donated seven orchards in Mukhairiq, then his share from date gardens in Fadak and Khaibar, all for charitable purposes.


Following these exemplary actions, his Companions, may God be pleased with them all, and followers have continuously given to many various, worthy causes. For instance, many wells were bought from individuals, and were designated for public service. As Uthman ibn ‘Affan reports, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, arrived in Medina and realized that the city had very little drinking water, except the water of Bi’r Ruma (Ruma Well). He asked, ‘Who will purchase Bi’r Ruma to equally share the water drawn therefrom with his fellow Muslims and shall be rewarded with a better well in the Garden (of Eden)?’ Then I bought it from my own money.”


Another circulated tradition in Bukhari and Muslim, the two most authenticated collections of hadith, refers to what is considered the first Islamic land waqf. Upon his request, Umar ibn al-Khattab is advised by the Prophet, to retain the corpus [of the land] but dedicate its fruits [in the way] of God. Consequently, he dedicated the land, indicating that it should not be sold, given away as a gift, or inherited; and the revenue from the land should be used as charity for the poor, for emancipating slaves, for wanderers, and for other social needs. Later, during Umar’s caliphate, Bilal suggested to divide the conquered villages and take the fifth for the treasury. Umar, however, refused and decided to make them waqf for the sustenance of warriors and for all Muslims (Gil 1998, 125-140).


Having been advised about its benefits, the Prophet’s Companions never stopped putting their wealth in bequests; they did this to such a degree that Jabir, another Companion, said, “Any of the Prophet’s Companions who could afford it made endowments” (Isesco.org). It is remarkable that the Prophet advised one of his Companions, Abu Zarr, who did not have any belongings at all, to ‘add some more water in [his] soup, and offer'” (Muslim, Birr, 142).


Since then, awqaf have been one of the pillars of Islamic society. The establishment of different kinds of awqaf that serve as institutions of social cooperation and solidarity were utilized, which supported an array of activities from scientific movements to the protection of inlets, and they became a financial source for many socioeconomic sectors and for the beneficence of the needy. They were a model for the contemporary nonprofit sector.


To elaborate an illustration of the services offered, awqaf ensured that diverse services were supplied for free (Bakir and Basagaoglu, ishim.net). Awqaf also allowed for huge innovations, such as mobile hospitals, which moved from village to village, as well as emergency teams (Subai 1998). The revenue of certain bequests, which could include shops, mills, caravanserais, or even entire villages, would pay for the maintenance and operating costs, and sometimes would supply a small stipend to the patient upon dismissal (Husain 1992). An example deed states that, “The hospital shall keep all patients until they completely recover. All costs are to be borne by the hospital, whether the people are residents or foreigners, rich or poor, employed or unemployed, physically or mentally ill… There are no conditions of consideration and payment: none is objected to or even indirectly hinted at for non-payment. The entire service is through the magnificence of Allah, the generous one” (Yalawae and Izah).

Motivations behind awqaf

Though the word waqf is not used in the Qur’an, there are many verses that constitute a foundation for its actions, such as “to lend willingly,” “to spend in the cause of God,” “to spend of your substance out of love for Him for your kin, for orphans, for the needy,” “to feed the poor,” “to give for charity,” and especially, “to compete in building hayrat (charitable acts).” Due to the extreme emphasis upon charity within Islam, as an act of devotion to God, foundations have flourished, displaying an exceptional development and performing comprehensive services to society.


It is stated in a heartening saying of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, that, “The most auspicious person is the one who is of assistance of others.” Hence, a contribution toward the welfare of the community is considered an act that brings a person closer to God. Another hadith declares that launching an establishment for social gain would be beneficial for the founder, even after death: “Once a son of Adam dies, none of his deeds will be of him except an ongoing charity, a useful knowledge, or a pious child who prays for him.” The ongoing charity here is interpreted as waqf.


The Islamic law of inheritance tends to fragment property into large numbers of small shares, whereas awqaf tends to preserve large amounts of wealth (Dallal 29). Yet, awqaf, whose benefits were confined to family members, were extremely rare. Notably, only 7% of the foundations registered during the 18th century delivered service to the founders’ families. As many as 75% devoted significant resources to serving outside constituencies, and the remaining 18% were strictly charitable awqaf. These figures confirm that sheltering wealth through a waqf was not the normal aim. Philanthropists founding these institutions believed that this world was a temporary residence, and it was necessary to spend one’s earnings for the happiness of other people in order to secure the felicity of the eternal life when returned to God.


The waqf body is intended to prevent the temporary possessions of this world from vanishing, by withholding them in the name, and for the sake of, God as a continuous charity. There is no obligation of any kind behind this action stemming from altruistic behavior, but a sense of responsibility towards humanity, a conscientious sense of serving others, and competing in charity; in other words, such values as compassion, mutual assistance, solidarity, the pleasure of comforting a living thing both materially and spiritually, and the free will of a person embracing these values as principles, have been an element of Islamic culture, motivating a person to transform some or all of his or her personal assets into pious foundations to serve society

Seeking proximity to God has been the main rationale of awqaf. In some cases, the founders named awqaf after themselves in the hope of being remembered by (and thus receiving prayers from) upcoming generations – though in general, anonymity is preferred. For instance, it was a common practice for the rich, especially during Ramadan, to pay debts of people in need, without revealing who they were, asking local shopkeepers to calculate the total balance on randomly picked pages of their records of receivable accounts. The overall purpose has been altruism rather than fame, since it is believed that impurity of intention might spoil the dedication of the gift, whose sole purpose is to please God.

Further influences

English trusts, the basis of Western nonprofits, remarkably resemble Islamic awqaf. Under both systems, the property is reserved and the usufruct is appropriated for a charitable purpose. The corpus becomes inalienable; estates for life in favor of successive beneficiaries can be created at the will of a founder without regard to the law of inheritance or the rights of the heirs, and continuity is secured by successive appointments of trustees (Cizakca 12). The trust was introduced by Crusaders, and influenced by the waqf institutions they came across. In other words, the Islamic waqf system, whose legal parameters have been developed by jurists through centuries, constitutes the origins of English trusts (Kuran 2001, 841-897).

Awqaf have supported a wide variety of life-oriented actions (Jones 1980, 23-36), playing a major role in establishing social justice and solidarity in society, in funding scientific research and arts, and in creating an ecological conscience to protect the environment (Yuksel 1999, 47-54). Moreover, it was thanks to the awqaf that the magnificent architectural heritage of Islamic civilization was financed and preserved throughout the centuries; urban districts could cope with tax burdens; excessive fragmentation of land could be avoided; old age and disability pensions were provided; in an age when insurance, as an institution, was unknown, rudimentary insurance was provided; infrastructure was built and maintained; almost all the assistance one can expect to have in a civilized society was financed, organized, built, and maintained by this system. The awqaf even aided defense efforts by building and maintaining urban walls and fortresses (Cizakca 2006).

“An origin of all revolutions and corruptions, and the spur and source of all base morals, is the saying, ‘So long as I’m full, what is it to me if others die of hunger?’ The only remedy for extirpating this approach is the payment of zakat” (Nursi, 22nd Letter). With their significance rooted in the Islamic principle of charity (Waqf and Islamic Philanthropy 2005), and their central function in sociocultural life, awqaf seem to be the most efficient way of dealing with poverty and income disparity. The government expenditure can be substantially reduced through a well functioning waqf system that creates a permanent, cumulative, and ever-increasing capital base and infrastructure for benevolent activities. This reduction leads to a lower government borrowing, and a reduced rate of interest which then initiates higher private investment, thus growth (Cizakca 2006), as demonstrated at the climax of Ottoman times, which needs to be addressed in another article.

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Okay so I’m on mobile and at the moment every time I reblog something or switch apps (not close tumblr) and switch back I’m launched back to the start of my dash which is yah know fucking annoying. Anyone know how to stop that nonsense

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hello, can someone request someone that can do an edit for my story for me? it seems like everyone i do find has their request closed. 

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SUNAN abi DAWUD : Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat): Book of Zakat Hadith 137

`Abd Allah bin ‘Amr reported the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) as saying :

It is sufficient sin for a man that he neglects him whom he maintains.

SUNAN abi DAWUD : Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat): Book of Zakat Hadith 137/145

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DAILY DUA

Dua and remembrance to be said at any time #10

اللهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْعَجْزِ، وَالْكَسَلِ، وَالْجُبْنِ، وَالْبُخْلِ، وَالْهَرَمِ، وَعَذَابِ، الْقَبْرِ


اللهُمَّ آتِ نَفْسِي تَقْوَاهَا، وَزَكِّهَا أَنْتَ خَيْرُ مَنْ زَكَّاهَا، أَنْتَ وَلِيُّهَا وَمَوْلَاهَا،


اللهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ لَا يَنْفَعُ، وَمِنْ قَلْبٍ لَا يَخْشَعُ، وَمِنْ نَفْسٍ لَا تَشْبَعُ، وَمِنْ دَعْوَةٍ لَا يُسْتَجَابُ لَهَا

Translation

O Allah, I seek refuge with You from weakness, and laziness, cowardice and miserliness, old and infirm age, and the torment of the grave.


O Allah, give my soul piety and purify it, for indeed You are the best of those who can purify it, You are it’s Guardian and Master.


O Allah, I seek refuge with You from knowledge that does not benefit, from a heart that does not get humbled [to Allah], from a soul which is never satisfied and from a supplication which does not get answered.

Transliteration

allaahumma innee a‛oodhu bika mi-nal-‛ajzi wal-kasal, wal-jubn wal-bukhl, wal haram wa ‛adhaabil-qabr


Allaahumma aati nafsee taq-waaha wa zak-kiha anta khairu man zak-kaaha anta wali-yuha wa maw-laaha


Allaahumma in-ni a‛oodhu bika min ‛ilmin laa yanfa‛, wa min qalbin laa yakh-sha‛, wa min naf-sin laa tashba‛, wa min du‛wat-in laa yustajaabu laha

Sources: Muslim No# 2722 An-Nasa'i No# 5458, 5538

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