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wholesomecrusading · 2 days ago
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The tower of Albon, last standing tower of a castle, Drôme (South-East of France)
Built in the 11th century, first in wood, then in stone, it became the main castle of the Albon family, who later became the rulers of the imperial principauty of Vienne.
Whereas from the Carolingian period to the early 11th century, stone was only used for the residences of the highest nobles (kings and princes), this castle is a testament to the increasing use of stone in castle architecture in the 11th century, even for less important noble families.
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historicalwinds · a day ago
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2022.01.26
Why must tumblr absolutely tank the image quality... :(
Anyways, prepping for a presentation on Friday, doing all my readings, and trying to start the prep work on two large research projects due in April..... I'm not having a good time.
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the---hermit · 2 days ago
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History exams tips by an history student
Hello there, it's your friendly hermit historian here. Since this post on tips on how to study history by an history student was really appreciated (I am really happy about that!), I thought I'd do a follow up post with a few tips regariding history exams in the specific.
I know the differences in school systems all around the world are huge, but I think many of these tips could be in some way useful to everyone. Just so you know the type of exam I am mostly used to, are oral exams. Here in Italy humanistic courses tendentially have oral exams as their main form. So my personal experience is mostly, but not solely, based on those. Of couse written exams need a specific set of abilities, but if they consist of open questions, or generally give you a chance to write longer answers these tips can be useful too. Some of these tips could be useful for other subjects aswell.
Fundamental information: time and place
Your main goal is to let your professor know that you have understood whatever the question is about. Since we are talking about history here, the first thing you want to do is to set times and places. So whatever your professor asks you, the first priority is to say in what time period the event took place and where in the world. This will let them know you know exactly what you are talking about. After that comes the real answer so the people involved, what happened, the correlated events, etc.
pro tip: if you really cannot remember about a specific date, try to at least set the time period. Both while you are exposing the events freely, and when you are directly asked a date by your professor. This happened to me multiple times, I was asked about a specific date, I did not remember it, and so I told my professor that I couldn't remember it, then instead of stopping I reasoned out loud on what the time period could be. This showed I was comforable with a lot of informations, that I was able to reason and therefore I did not just memorized without understanding, and that me not remembering a specific date did not mean I hadn't studied enough. This is why while studying you should make sure you have clearly in mind in which century events take place, it can be a life saver.
Language
This can be fundamental in order to get a high mark and not just a mediocre result. Whereas while reviewing you notes I highly incourage you to use simple, even silly language, in your exam you should try to be as academic as you can. This means be clear with your words, don't be too colloquial, and use specific historical language to refer to events and the processes you are talking about. Often while studying history you will find out that many words you use on a daily basis, actually have a slightly different meaning from what you thought. Letting your professor know that you understand these differences, and you know the proper vocabulary to discuss historical events can have a huge impact on your exam result.
I'll give you an example on this very last point. Of couse I am referring to and translating from the Italian language, because that's what I use on a daily basis, but bear with me. Commonly the words colonialsm and colonization are used to refer to the same thing. There is a slight difference, in fact colonialsm refers to the doctrines of colonization, meanwhile colonization refers to the process itself. Of couse using these words exchangeably on the daily is fine, but if during your exam you show you know the difference, it could be in your favour.
Be clear
The clearer you are in your exposition, the easier will be for your professor to understand you know what you are talking about. There's always a lot of informations that come to mind, after a question is posed. Proceed in steps, explain one thing at the time, just as if you are telling a story. Follow the main line of your answer, and simply worry about one thing at the time. If you try to tell everything all at once, your exposition will be messy, and you will appear as confused, which is obviously not your goal. If mid-answer you realize you have forgotten something, cosider whether it is really important information or not. If it's just a small detail let it go, it won't change your mark in the end, and it's not worth it to interrupt your exposition. If on the other end it is really fundamental information, finish talking about whatever you are explaining. Then simply state you just realized you haven't mentioned this important element regarding a previous point. Being direct on the fact that something slipped you mind shows you are very aware of what you are saying, and that you know what you are doing.
Use the question as a jumping point
This is fundamental in oral exams, the thing is quite simple the more you speak confidently the less questions your professor will ask you. So when asked about something, first clearly answer to the question, but after that do not stop. It's way better to be interrupeted by your professor, than just stay there silently. Add everything relating to that subject that comes to mind, make links, try to lead the conversation on topics you know well. This is important for two main reasons. Firstly you'll make a good impression, because you are showing off your knowledge. Secondly you are showing the ability of linking different subject in a coherent way, this means that you have really understood the historical processes, which is really important. The fact that your professor will have to interrupt you is also good, because it will be clear that you could talk about that topic more than you are actually required.
Compare similar events or processes
This is one of the best way to show off both that you have understood the events you are talking about, and that you have critical thinking abilities. After an event happens, many changes occur, coparting the before amd after directly can be a great way to explain such changes. An example could be the differences in european society during the ancien régime and after its fall with the French revolution. Another type of comparison could be between different states during the same period of time, and so on. This type of information is always great to show off you are comfortable with all the facts and you know how to reason on them.
Focus on the processes, but smartly give out specific informations
This is very useful in general, but expecially in those cases in which the question is about something you aren't super confident with. As we said you have to show you understood, and not that you have memorized by heart everything. Focusing on the processes, how events are connected, is fundamental. Generally is also easier because it doesn't imply a huge list of dates and names, which can be difficult to remember. My trick here is simple. As you are explaining the object of the question, make sure to refer at least one important date and relevent name, by doing so you will avoid a direct question from your professor. After you have shown you know at least a couple of very specific informations, it's less likely for them to directly ask you about these difficult things, and you can go on talking about the processes and events.
Make sure to highlight you have understood how things are linked to each other
Partially related to previous points, the main way to show you have understood the historical period you had to study, is to clearly explain how different events are linked to each other. History is a huge game of dominos, and each piece influences the next one, just as it was itself influced by what came before. To show you can reason on these changes, and the causes, is fundamental for any historical exposition.
Pro tip: realaborate what is written in your text book. If you use words you are more comfortable with, and your own words in general, it will be easier for you, and it will be clearer you have understood.
Direct reminders of things said in class
This is a pro tip again, and it's very easy, but very effective. If you have followed the classes, try to refer to something specific that was said there, and that maybe wasn't present in the books. It's very common to have either little details about an event/ historical figure, or examples, that were said in class only. Also things that maybe were specifically asked during class. These are all precious informations, because refering to them will imediatly give a great impression of you. It's a very simple trick to let the professor know that you were in class, and that you payed attention. This is something I personally do all of the time.
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gaaandaaaalf · 2 months ago
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things are coming together for my paper, and it’s exhausting, it’s satisfying, it’s exciting
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nasa · 14 days ago
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How Climate Change Showed Up in 2021
2021 was tied for the sixth-hottest year since modern record keeping began. We work together with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to track temperatures around the world and study how they change from year to year.
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For decades, the overall global temperature has been increasing because of human activities. The last decade has been the warmest on record. Each individual year’s average temperature, however, can be affected by things like ocean circulation, volcanic eruptions, and specific weather events.
For instance, last year we saw the beginning of La Niña – a pattern of cooler waters in the Pacific – that was responsible for slightly cooling 2021’s average temperature. Still, last year continued a long-term trend of global warming.
Globally, Earth’s temperature in 2021 was nearly 2°F warmer than the late 19th Century, for the seventh year in a row.
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The Record
Studying 142 Years
Since 1880, we can put together a consistent record of temperatures around the planet and see that it was much colder in the late-19th century. Before 1880, uncertainties in tracking global temperatures are larger. Temperatures have increased even faster since the 1970s, the result of increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Tracking Millions of Individual Observations
Our scientists use millions of individual observations of data from more than 20,000 weather stations and Antarctic research stations, together with ship- and buoy-based observations of sea surface temperatures, to track global temperatures.
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Reviewing Multiple Independent Records
Our global temperature record – GISTEMP – is one of a number of independent global temperature records, all of which show the same pattern of warming.
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The Consequences
Everywhere Experiences Climate Change Differently
As Earth warms, temperature changes occur unevenly around the globe. The Arctic is currently warming about four times faster than the rest of the planet – a process called Arctic amplification. Similarly, urban areas tend to warm faster than rural areas, partly because building materials like asphalt, steel and concrete retain heat.
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Droughts and Floods in Warmer Weather
More than 88% of the Western US experienced drought conditions in 2021. At the same time, communities in Western Europe saw two months’ worth of rain in 24 hours, breaking records and triggering flash floods. Because a hotter climate means more water can be carried in the atmosphere, areas like the Western US suffer drought from the increased 'thirstiness' of the atmosphere, while precipitation events can become more extreme as the amount of moisture in the atmosphere rises.
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Sea Levels Continue to Rise
Melting ice raises sea levels around the world, as meltwater drains into the ocean. In addition, heat causes the ocean water to expand. From 1993 to today, global mean sea level has been rising around 3.4 millimeters per year. In 2021, sea level data from the recently launched NASA/ESA Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich mission became available to the public.
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There is Hope
“This is not good news, but the fact that we are able to track this in real time and understand why it’s changing, and get people to notice why it’s changing and how we can change things to change the next trajectory, that gives me hope. Because we’re not in the dark here. We’re not the dinosaurs who are unaware the comet is coming. We can see the comet coming, and we can act.” – Dr. Gavin Schmidt, director of NASA GISS, where the global temperature record is calculated
Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space!
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disc80s · a year ago
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it’s the “date of birth: 1303 BC” for me...
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historiacombativa · a year ago
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So the 13th was my 2nd year anniversary with my partner in crime and he gifted me this beautiful knife 🗡 I love it very much🤎
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meadowbaek · 4 months ago
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Reading, reading and more reading🍂
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emsalx · 7 months ago
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there is something very therapeutic about the sounds typewriters make 
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myliterarystudies · 5 months ago
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oxford, i'm going to miss you
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encyclopedia-amazonica · 5 months ago
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Yamamoto Yaeko - Heroic defender of Aizu
If you want to read about another heroine of this battle, you can check out my article on Nakano Takeko.
In autumn 1868 the domain of Aizu, Japan, was under attack by the imperial troops. Women within the castle actively took part in the defense. 
They prepared ammunition, cooked meals, nursed the wounded, but also risked their lives in extinguishing the fires and rushed to cover the enemy canon balls with wet mats before they exploded. Young girls also collected the enemy ammunition for the defenders to reuse it. A 60 years old woman went out of the castle to retrieve food, but encountered an enemy soldier on the way. She stabbed him with her dagger and safely went back to the castle. A female bodyguard unit also protected Matsudaira Teruhime, the lord’s sister.
Some of them also fought. A contemporary witness depicts them as ready to don their white kimono and fight naginata  in hand. An observer also said that they shared all the men’s burden, took on watches and shouldered a rifle if needed.
Among them was Yamamoto Yaeko (1845-1932), who distinguished herself through her leadership and her skills with firearms, though she wasn’t the only woman to use  them in the defense. She was the daughter of an artillery instructor and her brother Kakuma had taught her to use firearms. She was particularly competent, being able to use recent models like the Spencer rifle and had also learned to fight with a naginata. 
On October 8, Yaeko began to take part in night sorties. She had asked another female defender, Takagi Tokio, to cut her hair short like a male samurai. Armed with her Spencer rifle, she was dressed like a man and had two swords at her belt. She also commanded the men in charge of one of the cannons and didn’t abandon her post, even as cannon balls rained on the castle.
In spite of this fierce resistance, Aizu surrender on November 5, 1868. In an ultimate gesture of defiance, Teruhime ordered the women to clean the whole castle in order to humiliate the enemy as soon as they would set a foot in it and to show that the Aizu spirit was still unbroken. 
When the castle fell, Yaeko was made prisoner with the men. After being freed, she divorced from her first husband went to Kyoto to find her brother Kakuma. There, she met and married Nijima Jô, converted to Christianity and helped him to found Doshisha university. She later became a nurse for the Red Cross and served as such during the Russo-Japanese war in 1905. Another woman who fought in Aizu’s defense, Yamakawa Futaba, also became a promoter of women’s education.
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(Yamamoto Yaeko in her later years, c.1929)
Today, a statue of Yamamoto Yaeko can be seen in Aizu. There’s also a TV-show based on her life: Yae no Sakura. 
Here’s the link to my Ko-Fi if you want to support me.
Bibliography:
Shiba Gorô, Remembering Aizu: the testament of Shiba Gorô
“Samurai warrior queens” documentary
Wright Diana E., “Female combatants and Japan’s Meiji restauration: the case of Aizu”
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wholesomecrusading · 2 days ago
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Stavelot Triptych, reliquary for a piece of the True Cross, created in the Meuse valley (current day Belgium) near 1156
The reliquary displays six scenes of the life of Constantine, son of Helena, the inventor (=discoverer) of the Byzantine True Cross.
Note the striking image of knights charging into battle, with their lances down. This technique, known as "couched lance" had become the standard fighting for knight in the first half of the 12th century.
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historicalwinds · 10 days ago
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01.17.2022
so many hours spent reading... exhausted is an understatement.
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the---hermit · 11 days ago
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Tips on how to study history by an history student
I've had this idea at the back of my mind for a while now. The thing is that as an history student I very often have people ask me for tips on how to approach the subject when they have to study for an exam. Even before university, since I was the history nerd in all my friends groups I had people either ask me for tips, or for help studying the subject, and memorizing stuff. I fully understand that it can be a tough subject, expecially if you don't have a professor that teaches with passion, and that maybe expects you to memorize a bunch of dates without much explaining. If you are used to study other subject, and you only have a couple of history classes, you might find it difficult to approach it, because the study method you normally use doesn't work. So here are a few of my tips on how to approach history, some of them are honestly quite silly, but believe me they truly work.
Aim to understand the processes and not simply memorize everything by heart
This is one of the funamental things about history. I know some teachers don't care and will just tell you to memozire a bunch of dates but that is useless. The true aim of history is to understand the processes that took place in the past, how they are linked to each other, the consequences of actions, etc. Not only you will get more out of what you are studying, but it makes the job much easier. Everything that happened in history was the consequence of a previous action, and has caused something. If you truly understand the passages it will be much easier to remember the course of events.
Understand that events in history are just like the events in the plot of a tv show or a book
I bet that everyone here could write an essay on the full plot and characters of their favourite tv show or book, without looking for any references. Even if the characters are a lot, and have terrible names, you probably remember them all, can tell them apart, and know perfectly everything that happens in the story. History is the exact same thing. The only difference is that usually you don't get a chance to get invested in the characters, and don't really differenciated them. What I have always suggested it to try to see whatever period of history you have to study as a book, or a tv show. The events are the plot of the story, and historical figures are the characters. This point is fully linked to the next two tips, that are all about characterizing historical figures to better remember about them.
Put a face to the name
Look for paintings or pictures of historical figures. being able to imagine them with an actual face is very helpful. You'll find that a lot of historical figures have characteristics that make them recognizable. I truly believe that being able to actually imagine whatever historical figure, helps a lot with remembering whta happened. I fully try to imagine the whole movie in my head when I am studying, and this passage is fundamental.
Look for further silly informations on historical figures
This sounds very stupid but bare with me for a second. This is an additional step to characterize the historical figure you have to learn about. I find that associating them not only to their face, but also to very random informations, can help so much with remembering about them. I strongly believe that the stupidest the information the better, because it will probably be easier to remember, and it's less probable something they have in common with other people. I know for a fact that it's the silly things I will remember (which is something that will come up again in another tip). Here are some examples. Giacomo Leopardi, one of the most famous poets of Italian litterature, known mainly for litteraly inventig cosmic pessimism, hated soup so much as a child, he fully wrote a poem against it. Roman Emperor Claudius is said to have tried to hyde from the praetorian guards that were looking for him to put him in charge of the empire. He thought they were looking for him to murder him, and instead he became emperor. These are just examples, but they are very simple recognizable facts that stay with you and help you to have a full image of the historical figure you are studying.
Picture the events like a movie in your head
You now have fully characterized subjects, and have to learn what they did, and what happened, when reading and then reviewing try to imagine the events as if they were a movie. Fully picture things in your head (again paintings and photographs can help a lot in this step). This association, and the fact that you are linking one event to the next in a sequence will help you memorizing facts.
The sillier the retelling is the better you will remember it
Depending on the subject you are studying this could potentially be controverse. Historical facts are very serious, and they should be percieved as such, not only because it's actual stuff that happened in the past, but also because oftentimes we still have consequences today. But part of me also believes that we should make fun of historical figures sometimes, often it helps with making them smaller, less scary if you will. I won't dwell too much on this subject since is huge, but what I mean with the purpuse of studying history is quite simple. When studying history, expecially if you have a chance to review it with someone, try to retell it in a funny or silly way to each other. I know for a fact that what I remember better about past classes, are the informations on which someone made some kind of joke or stupid comment. I have no idea what's the science about it, but whenever I have helped someone studying (whatever was the subject really) the stupidest ways I explained things the better people seemed to remember them. This is surely quite a silly tip, but believe me when I tell you it works. (Honestly I also personally find that when I get really mad about something that happened, I remember it quite well. So probably the theory is that if there's strong emotions involved you have a better chance to remember facts. And there's a lot in history to get angry at, so keep this in mind too).
On memorizing dates
This is the most dreadful part of studying history for everyone, even for us who actually chose to study the subject. As I said I refuse to see history as a long list of dates to learn by heart, but surely there's important dates to remember, and the periodization is fundamental to understand events. I have different methods. The first is one is to have a specific highlighter that I use only for dates in my notes. I usually use yellow, because it's the strongest colour I own, and it can't be mistaken for whatever other colour I use to highlight other informations. Secondly When there's a big list of dates I like to have a second set of notes, only regadring those dates. I write everything down in chronological order, so that I can see what happened during the same period of time, and write a word/ sentence to describe each fact. Since I usally study long periods of history all togheter I like to divide the list in sections depending on the century. This is very hepful to create smaller groups of dates. After having this list, since there's no other way to remember all of that, I try to repeat it until I memorize it. What I normally do is repeate it at least once a day, much better if I manage twice. Usually I do it as the first thing before reviewing the full set of notes, and then once at the end of my daily studying session. I begin by only reading it outloud (I think reading outloud helps much more so I highly reccomend doing that). When I am starting to memorize things I start switching the order of dates so I read them from the last of the list to the first one. This helps because if you read the same list again and again, you'll start to remember informations mostly because you associate them to the previous and next points. By breaking up the usual order of the list you force yourself to only link date and fact. The last thing is to randomly go through the list and picking, for this same reason. I also would reccomend copying the list multiple times, and trying to rewrite it without looking at the original.
Review with someone who has no clue what you are talking about
This is actually a general study tip that works for any subject. I know it's not possible for everyone, but I highly reccomend finding someone willing to listen to you talking for a couple of hours on what you are studying. The less they know the better, because they will ask you questions. The thing is very simple, if you explain what you are studying to someone who has very little knowledge on the subject, you will be forced to : 1. Be clear in your exposition, 2. Explain clue points, 3. Have a very clear idea of what you are talking about. It's a great exercise to test if you have truly understood the passages, and sometimes it foces you to understand things you are insicure about. It is one of the most useful tips of this list in my personal opinion. This study tecnique has helped me so much in the past, and I still use it to this day. I usually annoy my father with this, who is quite interested in history, so he always challenges me with great questions. I also found that helping someone who is struggling with the class was helpful, because not only I had to understan the passages, but I had to force myself to help someone else understand those same informations for the test. Reviewing out loud on your own is always very importan, but this addition when possible truly changes the game.
This is my very standard set of tips on how to study history. I might think of others in the future, and in that case I will make sure to add them on here, for anyone who needs them.
Untill then I hope that this can be useful for someone out there. If I was unclear on any points, feel free to tell me and ask me for clarifications. Same goes if you have other doubts or a specific problem with studying history. My inbox is always open and I am very happy to be helpful if I can. Studying is fun and all, but it's much easier if we help each other in the process.
I'm sorry it was a super long post, thank you for reading, and good luck with your tests whatever they may be on.
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gaaandaaaalf · 2 months ago
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i’ve always loved these otherwise normal-sized windows that look magnified because of the squeezed-in staircase near them; i love the complete chaos of proportions, and i love that college tucked this chaos away at the very back of the campus
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romuluscalicot · 15 days ago
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Update and edit: As @siancore​ rightly raised here , I made an attribution error on the original post indicating that Bronwyn Carlson was the sole author, failing to note that Lynda-June Coe co-authored the piece below. I’ve edited to correct the mistake and provide appropriate credit, so please- if reblogging- ensure that you’re using the correct version.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised this article contains names and images of deceased people
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July 30, 1972- Bob Maza addressing a protest at the Tent Embassy.
“Today, the Aboriginal Tent Embassy remains on the lawns of Old Parliament House as a reminder of the successive failures of subsequent governments to address the demands for justice represented by the embassy and its people.
As (Gary) Foley reflects in his history of the embassy:
That it has endured for [five] decades as a potent symbol rejecting the hypocrisy, deceit and duplicity by successive Australian governments is a testament to the refusal of large numbers of Aboriginal people to concede defeat in a 200-year struggle for justice.”
- Bronwyn Carlson and Lynda-June Coe, A short history of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy – an indelible reminder of unceded sovereignty
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gwndlnstudies · a month ago
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michaelmas term has come to an end
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historiacombativa · a year ago
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“When all we see in art history is a male-dominated white heaven, we become the inferior to this gender and cultural imperialism” -Harmonia Rosales
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“The creation if god”
“Summer”
“The birth of Oshun”
“The birth of eve”
All by Harmonia Rosales
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almostreading · a year ago
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Essay writing on a saturday morning
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vanwssa · 2 months ago
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The mellow November sun came streaming into the room. The sky was bright, and there was a genial warmth in the air.
Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891).
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