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22nd October 2020


[vārā], noun (masculine), plural वारे [vāre]


इतका वारा होता की खिडकी आपटून बंद झाली.
itkā vārā hotā kī khiḍkī āpṭūn baṅd zhālī

There was so much wind that the window slammed shut.

Origin: Old Marathi वारा [vārā], ultimately from Sanskrit वातर [vātara].

There must likely have been a Prakrit intermediary.

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Today’s Korean class (10) : Finding my own dream is too difficult to me.


A : 나만의 꿈을 찾는 건 나한테 너무 어려운 일이야.

B : 나도 그렇게 생각해. 알지, 그건 너의 평생에 걸쳐 다뤄야 할 것이야.

A : 무엇부터 시작할 수 있을까?

B : 지금 당장 할 수 있는 가장 작은 일부터 생각해보자.


A : Finding my own dream is too difficult for me.

B : I think so. You know, it is a stuff that you have to deal with in your whole life.

A : What can I start with?

B : Let’s think about the smallest thing that you can do right now.


*Word Explanations

꿈 = dream

나만의  ~ = my own ~

어려운 = difficult

나에게 = for me

평생 = whole life

다루다 = deal with

시작 + 하다 = start

생각 + 하다 = think

가장 작은 일 = the smallest thing

지금 당장 = right now

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17th October 2020


[bārīk], genderless adjective

1. fine (detailed and delicate)

इतकं बारीक काम तुला जमेल का?
itka bārīk kām tulā zamel kā

Will you be able to handle such fine work?

2. thin, slender

त्या झाडावर एक बारीक, हिरवा साप दिसून येत आहे.
tyā zhāḍāvar ek bārīk hirvā sāp disūn yet āhe

I can make out a thin, green snake on that tree.

Origin: Persian باریک‎ [bârik], from Middle Persian [bʾlyk /bārīk/, /bārīg/]. The word is understood to be of Proto-Indo-Iranian origin in some way.

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14th October 2020


[mhaṇṇe], transitive verb

to say, to recite

“मी परतेन,” असं टर्मिनेटर म्हणाला.
mī paraten asa ṭarmineṭar mhaṇālā

“I’ll be back,” said the Terminator.

Origin: Old Marathi म्हणणे [mhaṇaṇe] or भणणे [bhaṇaṇe], from Prakrit भणइ [bhaṇai], from Sanskrit भनति [bhanati] (to declare, to resound, to call aloud), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *bʰánati, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *bʰánati, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰn̥h₂-é-ti.

The PIE root is the distant origin of the English word ‘ban’.

The transformation of भ [bha] to म्ह [mha] in Old Marathi is very curious to me.

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Late night study / dnd character drawing sesh!

I wanted to talk a little bit about unstructured time when studying a language.

I’m naturally a night owl, but unfortunately life demands that I get up reasonably early, so I try to go to bed at a reasonable time too. I do, however, try to maximise the time when I’m most alert - I like doing exercise late at night, and reading my textbooks or doing more chill studying feels special somehow when it’s dark. I avoid computers and I don’t do my university work - this way it emphasises the fact that learning (it sounds friendlier than ‘studying’) my target language is something that I enjoy, something that calms me when I’m stressed or frustrated or annoyed. Sometime I’ll just rewrite vocab lists or practice my Chinese handwriting. Sometimes I’ll read my text book, not taking notes, just skimming through. Sometimes I’ll read a book in my target language. None of this is the super-structured stuff that I’ll maybe do during the day, but a calm way to unwind and relax before bed.

A lot of people will argue for an hour’s bed time routine, and when I had trouble sleeping that did help. But if you are able to, and don’t have trouble sleeping, why not enjoy doing what you want right up until you sleep? Especially if that’s the time of day when you work best? For me it turns learning my target language from something onerous and something I feel guilty about (lots of other uni work) into time for myself, by myself. I don’t set any aims. I don’t try to learn anything, in fact. I just open my books and skim through and it reminds me why I enjoy it. I think we could all take some time every now and then simply to remind ourselves that we’re doing this because we love it - or if we’re not in the space to love it right now, because of mental illness or pressure or stress or anything, that we started it because we loved it, and we’ll almost likely love it again at some point in the future.

Note: I’m NOT advocating crazy 24/7 library schedules. I usually take a break for two hours at least during mid afternoon and again during and after dinner, when I feel less energised. If you are a morning person, wonderful, you have my respect! Get up, sip your tea, do some stretches. It doesn’t have to be planned. Just give yourself some time without your phone or laptop to touch base with your language or study every now and then.

You don’t need to fill every minute of every day studying, nor do you need to plan every minute of studying, or stick to that plan. Sometimes goals are helpful - other times, they get in the way.

Take some time. Structure in some unstructured moments. Follow your curiousity. You’re already doing everything you can, and you’re on the right track. You’re doing so well.


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13th October 2020


[vaḷṇe], transitive and intransitive verb

to turn

पुढे डाव्या बाजूला वळलो तर एक मोठा पुतळा दिसून येईल.
puḍhe ḍāvyā bāzūlā vaḷlo tar ek moṭhā putḷā disūn yeīl

If we turn to the left up ahead, a big statue will come into view.

Origin: Prakrit वलइ [valai], from Sanskrit वलते [valate] (to go, to turn).

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12th October 2020


[kiḍā], noun (masculine), plural किडे [kiḍe]

insect, bug

मला बाजूच्या भिंतीवर एक मोठा काळा किडा दिसला.
malā bāzucyā bhiṅtīvar ek moṭhā kāḷā kiḍā dislā

I saw a big black insect on the wall to the side.

Origin: Old Marathi किड [kiḍa], from Prakrit कीड [kīda], from Sanskrit कीट [kīṭa] or कीटक [kīṭaka].

The Sanskrit loanword कीटक [kīṭaka] is also in use, usually in more scientific settings.

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11th October 2020


[pivḷe], gendered adjective


मला पिवळी केळी आवडत नाहीत, हिरवी केळी आवडतात.
malā pivḷī keḷī āvḍat nāhīt, hirvī keḷī āvaḍtāt

I don’t like yellow bananas, I like green bananas.

Origin: Prakrit पीवल [pīvala], from Sanskrit पीतल [pītala] (yellow, brass).

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What is tone and what is intonation??

So I wanted to talk a bit about the overlay of tone and intonation from a linguistic perspective as I see a lot of learners practicing in ways which might actually hinder them long term. This is a midnight post without looking at my notes lmao but here’s hoping it helps!!

So, tone: broadly speaking, without getting complicated, it’s the use of pitch, accent and other markers to distinguish INDIVIDUAL WORDS from each other. It’s LEXICALLY contrastive in the same way that /p/ and /b/ are two different phonemes, making ‘pat’ and 'bat’ two different words: in tonal languages like Chinese tone functions the same, and, as we know, not all 'ma’ s are made equal: 吗妈麻骂 and so on.

Intonation is the use of pitch, 'loudness’, stress (whatever that really is) and other features across a segment that’s larger than a syllable, usually across a phrase or sentence. This is not LEXICALLY contrastive, but may make certain grammatical, structural or pragmatic (meaningful) properties of the phrase clear to the listener. In English, for instance, our subordinate clauses are often very low and flat - this helps the listener process the syntactic structure by giving them an extra heads up. The information can also be completely paralinguistic, such as informing them that the speaker is very angry or very pleased.

The problem with many learners, which makes any tonal language sound stilted and somehow off, is that they’re not taught about intonation and how it interacts with tone. They copy the individual words and are so focused on getting the ABSOLUTE pitch or tone right that they fail to place it in the context of the tone of a sentence. Because intonation CANNOT exist independently of tone in a tonal language, nor tone independent of intonation.

Looking at English for a sec: it’s a stress timed language, which means that words and syllables that aren’t stressed get 'squashed’ - think about how we pronounce 'can’ differently in the sentences 'Yes, I can!’ and 'Can you do it?’. In the first we pronounce it with a full vowel - in the second it’s reduced to a schwa. It’s not just whole sentences in English that are stress timed though - we rely on stress to distinguish between different words. Have you ever been in a conversation with an L2 speaker of English and failed to understand a word they’re saying, much to their frustration? Many times, for speakers of languages that aren’t stress timed, it’ll be because of word stress: it’s very hard for us to hear 'BEcause’ with a full vowel in the first and a schwa in the second as 'because’. This is why native English speakers often struggle, conversely, when speaking syllable-timed languages like Spanish or mora-timed languages like Japanese - we tend to be a bit too eager on the squashing front!!

There are two things to bear in mind here. Firstly, that though English doesn’t have tone, it DOES use stress to determine two words - the verb and noun 'record’ being a classic example. 'Stress’ is a particularly nasty phonological phenomenon that manifests itself in a variety of ways - it basically just means emphasising one syllable or segment over others, and can be achieved variously using length of a syllable, 'loudness’ or 'acoustic energy’, pitch and so on. This varies language by language. In English, for instance, stressed syllables are often higher in pitch.

So this has implications for our acquisition of tone as speakers of non tonal languages. One of the problems, I think, is that we are taught in isolation and given extreme examples where, especially in Mandarin, people just don’t speak like that in real life (the third tone??!. I could go on about this forever, but anyway), what it means is that we are shown tone as something completely foreign and different and hopeless and how will we ever learn it… Sure, it’s a system we don’t have, but we have something similar-ish: we also use pitch, among other things, to determine where the stress in the word is. The difference is, of course, that it’s not contrastive in English, and that it’s only visible over multiple words. But my point is that if you try to memorise a phrase or a multi syllabic word in a tonal language by just hearing the vague shape of the tone, the tone pattern, than specifically memorising the individual tones, this will not only appeal to your non-tonal L1 brain who likes to hear pitch in determining the stress of words, but it will also make it far easier to transfer your individual learned vocabulary to being used in an actual, natural utterance. This also massively speeds up your process of tone acquisition - once you start hearing tone as an intrinsic part of the word, much like how the stress on the second syllable is intrinsically part of the word 'fantastic’, you start to memorise tone without even noticing you’re doing it.

This brings us to my second point - English can use pitch as a marker for sentence intonation BECAUSE pitch is not a contrastive element in English. You can say 'horse’ as weirdly as you want, it still means horse. Tonal languages CAN’T do it in the same way, but of course they still have sentence intonation, it’s just a little different. Instead of having individual patterns of sentence intonation that manifest themselves in pitch inside individual syllables, therefore, they operate WITHIN the constraints of the tonal system of that language.

This is what trips many learners up. They try to add their non-tonal sentence intonation to a tonal language - so for instance rising tone on certain types of questions - and are then stuck saying something which really sounds more like a second tone when they wanted anything but. They are then frustrated - doesn’t Chinese have intonation?? Of course it does - but not in the way you’re used to.

I’m going to mention one thing here that is critically important. And that is that Mandarin Chinese, especially more so compared to some other tonal languages, uses RELATIVE and not absolute pitch to mark tones. This explains why it’s not difficult to understand a man’s fourth tone or a woman’s even though the absolute pitch of their voice is different - it’s the tone contour that matters. This is not quite the same in languages like Cantonese where there are some tones that have a similar contour, but some are higher than others. ALL languages, however, regardless of whether they are tonal or not, exhibit a phonological phenomenon called 'downdrift’. This means that the high flat tones at the beginning of a clause or a phrase will be considerably higher, flatter and longer than those at the end - and the relative pitch of a low tone at the beginning of the sentence, in some languages, may even be higher than a high tone at the end of an utterance. Compare the various 他 in 他说他没看见他 - they should get progressively lower and shorter. This is just one of the ways intonation operates in a tonal language - often, tones are more explicit and 'prototypical’ in main clauses or at the start of a clause than in subordinate clauses or at the end. It’s a way of telling the listener pragmatic information about the utterance, which is the job of all suprasegmental phenomena like intonation.

So, coming back to operating 'within’ the 'constraints’ of a tonal language, what does that mean? Well, Chinese can’t use pitch in the same way as English in intonation because, unlike English, pitch is a contrastive element in word formation of single syllablic words. So what it does instead is EXAGGERATE the tone of a particular word that wants to be stressed. Let’s say you want to say 这件衣服不是我新买的 and you want to emphasise various things: THIS piece of clothing, this piece of CLOTHING, this piece of clothing is NOT, this piece of clothing is not MY recently… and so on. You can do this in English with stress, in many people exhibiting itself with a high long vowel falling sharply. Try it yourself with the sentence 'She didn’t steal my handbag’, and watch how the intonation changes depending on which word you want to stress. In tonal languages, however, you’ll exaggerate the tone instead.

So what this means is that all those nodding people in YouTube videos trying to teach you the third tone ONLY speak like that when they are emphasising something - like, 不是我的,是你的. They may not even speak that way in isolation when given an individual word to read in the third tone - and so, in speech, it’s not really a falling-rising tone but just a low, short 'zombie’ tone, often accompanied by 'creaky voice’ or vocal fry. If you speak like they do - if you are the world’s greatest mimic and can copy them 100% - you’ll sound like a robot at best, and people will be utterly incapable of understanding you at worst.


Firstly, that tone and intonation are not seperable in any language. Tone and intonation both use the same elements available to us in the process of speech production (vowel duration, vowel quality and so on) and you can’t isolate one from the other in any kind of natural speech. So when learning tone, it’s critically important to do it naturally. I don’t mean yeet yourself to China, that’s unrealistic and unnecessary, but copy native speakers saying phrases, not words. Watch how they speak when they sound excited, or sad, or angry, and copy them. Try to infuse your voice with emotion not how you think it should sound, but how it actually sounds. And above all, remember: intonation operates within the constraints of tone. You want to sound angry with the second tone but keep making it sound like the fourth? Listen to how short and abrupt second tones in words like 停 sound, and copy what you hear. Mimic native speakers. Don’t be afraid to sound silly - you are relearning a system of expressing yourself and expressing emotion. It takes time.

And you’re all doing great.


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10th October 2020


[ajab], genderless adjective


या अजब पुस्तकात जे काही लिहिलं आहे ते खरं झालं आहे.
ajab pustakāt je kāhī lihila āhe te khara zhāla āhe

Everything written in this astonishing book has come true.

Origin: Arabic عَجَب‎ [ʿajab], from the Arabic root ع ج ب‎ [ʿ-j-b] (related to wonder and astonishment).

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8th October 2020


[aṅtar], noun (neuter), plural अंतरे [aṅtare] or अंतरं [aṅtara]

distance, inverval between, gap

त्या दोन गावांच्या मध्ये ४ कि.मी.चं अंतर आहे.
tyā don gāvāṅcyā madhye cār kimīča aṅtar āhe

There is a distance of 4 km between the two villages.

Origin: Sanskrit अन्तर [antara], from Proto-Indo-Aryan *Hántaras, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hántaras, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁énteros (inner, what is inside).

Note: The word अंतर is also used metaphorically to represent a rift, difference, separation, or estrangement between two entities.

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Hi guy & welcome to my corner of the tumblr Universe!

I recently stated learning Korean and thought I would share my notes, tip & tricks with you. I severely suck at social media but I’ll try my best to keep this updated and answer any questions you may have.

I’ll be posting all sorts of content on this but I’ll try to keep it organized & aesthetic asf, lol I enjoy the sight of cohesion. Hopefully in the future I can implement other tactics to help us all learn and enjoy the experience of learning languages.

As the learning progresses I’ll be making changes and editing stff so don’t come for meeee!!! 

Also if I’ve made a mistake feel free to correct me, I’m trynna me fluent fluent. 

My Ultimate goal is to learn as many languages as humanly possible ;)

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So, today is Day 1… the first day working on my language learning again. Sadly, it’s midterm season, so I’ve been struggling with time. To compensate and help myself actually consistently work on it everyday, I won’t pick a language that I HAVE to study the day before or for a certain amount of time. Instead, I’ll decide what I’ll do the day of. This means that some days I might do more while others I might just do review, but each day I will only work on one language. I’ll also be working on my Duolingo streak again.

I did my Japanese speaking test on Friday. I have no idea how I did, I felt that my sentences were wayyy too simple. 

Today is 中文.

I reviewed the first section of my Chinese notes on Duolingo.

I practiced saying numbers (0 to 999) by using a random number generator on Google. Then, I simply wrote random sentences in a notebook using the vocab from that section.

Examples: 我叫Joy。你叫什么。我是学生。不是老师。你是老师吗。医生吗。



Random question: In Chinese, can you drop the subject of the sentence, like in Japanese? Like can I say: 不是老师 if I already said 我是学生 right before?

Thanks! I hope you all are well. :)

* Not in Section 1, but it is in Section 2 in Lesson “Time” :)

I was debating whether or not to do Lingodeer but needed to do Anatomy notes. 

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3rd October 2020


[śatrū], noun (masculine), plural शत्रू


मित्रांना जवळ ठेव आणि शत्रूंना अजूनच जवळ ठेव.
mitrāṅnā zavaḷ ṭhev āṇi śatrūṅnā azunač zavaḷ ṭhev

Keep your friends close and your enemies even closer.

Origin: Sanskrit शत्रु [śatru], from Proto-Indo-Aryan *śátruṣ, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ćátruš, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱét-ru-s, from *ḱet- (to be angry).

Note: Also sometimes spelled in the Sanskrit way as शत्रु [śatru].

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I want to offer my help to anyone who wants or is currently learning spanish.

I’m a native speaker, you can send me a message and we can practice wheter is like a conversation or with any assignment you have.

I think that is such a compliment when someone else is taking the time to learn about our language.

Besides, I can teach some slang or recommend you a few songs.

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New Japanese Phrase!!

「お邪魔します」 (おじゃまします)

I thought I knew the most common polite phrases for coming and going from a home or place that you spend a lot of time in, but I’ve never heard this one before!

This is used when someone invites you into their home, or when you’re announcing yourself into a new room where people might be gathered.

It translates to “excuse me for disturbing” but it’s interpreted as “thank you for allowing me to come in respectfully”

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28th September 2020


[ghoḍā], noun (masculine), plural घोडे [ghoḍe]


गेरल्ट आपल्या घोड्यावर बसला आणि निल्फगार्डला निघाला.
geralṭ āplyā ghoḍyāvar baslā āṇi nilfgārḍlā nighālā

Geralt got on his horse and left for Nilfgaard.

Origin: Old Marathi form घोडु [ghoḍu], Prakrit घोडअ [ghoḍa’a], from Sanskrit घोटक [ghoṭaka]

Note 1: Feminine form (i.e. ‘mare’) is घोडी [ghoḍī].

Note 2: In Mumbai slang, घोडा can also mean a gun, especially a handgun.

Note 3: घोडा is also what the knight piece in chess is called in Marathi.

Note 4: Omg Old Marathi called horses ‘घोडु [ghoḍu]’ that is the cutest thing ever ;jfkalsdasd

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