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Non-Gricean Humor: What sport do you play with a wombat? Wom.

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Bassari (oniyan)

Basic facts

  • Number of native speakers: 33,600
  • Recognized minority language: Senegal
  • Language of diaspora: Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau
  • Script: Latin, 29 letters
  • Grammatical cases: 0
  • Linguistic typology: fusional, SOV
  • Language family: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Senegambian, Tenda, Basari-Bedik
  • Number of dialects: 3


I was not able to find any information about the history of Bassari.

Writing system and pronunciation

These are the letters that make up the alphabet: a b ɓ c d ɗ e ë f g h i j k l m n ñ ŋ o p r s ŝ t u w y ƴ.

When -e- and -o- are open, they have an acute accent.


Nouns have eighteen classes, two numbers (singular and plural), and no cases. The combination of a prefix and the definite article define each noun class.

Nouns, verbs, and some adjectives alternate their first consonant depending on noun class and verb mood.

Verbs are conjugated for tense, mood (conditional, indicative, imperative, and subjunctive), aspect, person, and number. The past and conditional affixes are inserted between the prefix—which together with the verb root constitutes the infinitive—and pronoun.


Bassari has three dialects: Ane, Këd, and Oxalac. All of them are mutually intelligible and only display some small lexical differences.

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Orc accents and likely common sounds

Sat, Oct 24, 2020

Stuck 2 plastic forks in front of my lower front teeth to mimic tusks and felt out what sounds are easiest for me to make.


  1. Most front-of-the-mouth consonants are very hard to say.
  2. P, v, f, s, sh, ch, and m are all difficult.
  3. W is actually very easy
  4. An orc who has trouble with some sounds, much like someone with a speech impediment or a child still grasping certain sounds, might replace some harder sounds when speaking Common, especially if they are not fully fluent. Using d instead of b or p, or N instead of M, might be fairly common for an orc with a heavy accent.


  • When I first got a retainer as a kid, I had trouble with s, sh, d, and t for over 2 weeks, but adapted after that. For someone whose tusks remain constant throughout their lives, these difficulties in pronunciation might actually be much less significant than I originally thought
  • Forks are not full sized tusks
  • If babies have tusks, they might not be able to say “mama” like human babies are prone to. They’d more likely say “wawa” or just “dada” so I might make the parent word “wa'du”.
  • If tusks only appear in childhood and grow immensely during puberty (orcs reach physical maturity at about 15 years old, so puberty would start sooner), then a teenager would have a much bigger “lisp” than either an older child or a full adult due to their rapidly growing tusks.
  • The time at which tusks appear might greatly affect the more common sounds in the orcish language
  • The sounds that orcs Can enunciate depend greatly on tusk size and ability to close one’s mouth
  • The sounds that orcs are likely to say often is more flexible.

Current path:

  • The degree to which orcs use sounds that feel unnatural may be left up to a roll of the dice or be determined by the culture I craft, since I’m giving orc culture an overhaul in my homebrew world.
  • I may implement use of clicks in speech to fill in certain gaps. This might also pull into a connection between orcs and Aaracokra. Should be interesting.
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The History of The Modern Tamil Script (Part-1)

The Tolkāppiyam is a comprehensive grammar on Tamil as well as the oldest text of literature found in the language. It’s written on a very thin palm leaf with ink.


[The Tolkāppiyam]

This was most likely written in the Tamil-Brahmi script.

The Tamil-Brahmi script emerged in South India and other places (given below) from the Brahmic script.

The language which it wrote is called Old Tamil.

The Brahmic script also gave rise to other Indian language-scripts such as Marathi, Hindi, Telugu etc.

This script was used from roughly the beginning of the BCE to the 4th Century BCE.

The vaṭṭeḻuttu script emerged from Tamil-Brahmi around 4th Century AD and stayed in its same form till the 10th AD.

It has a sister script called the ‘Grantha’ which has now been transformed into modern Malyalam.


The Vaṭṭeḻuttu script fell out and was replaced by something similar. One of the differences between them was that vaṭṭeḻuttu has a more cursive approach in writing the alphabet then the Modern Tamil Script.

I hope this post was correct, please correct me if I was wrong anywhere. Part-2 coming whenever it’s ready :)

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Trapasis mian kapon deziro lerni la latinan…

Mi ne scias. Mi ne ĝin lernos serioze, ĉar mi jam studas du lingvojn. Unu plian, kiun mi komencis lerni, kaj mi ne devus, ĉar mi studas jam du, tri estus (kaj estas estanta) pli malfacila.

La solvo kiun mi trovis estas lerni la latinan uzante nur unu fonton: libro. Libro kiu mi supozas esti tre konata por tiuj kiuj scias/lernas la latinan: LINGVA LATINA.

Por tiuj kiuj ne ĝin konas, la libro instruas al vi la latinan, sed latine. Kio ĝi faras estas montru al vi tekstojn en la latina, komencante simpla maniero kaj malfaciligante ĝin iom post iom. Ĝi ankaŭ montras etajn konsiliojn, en la latina, kompreneble, kie vi povas lerni novan vorton aŭ novan deklinacion.

Mi komencis legi la libron hodiaŭ. Mi ne scias ĉu mi ĝin legos ĉiutage, aŭ foje. Aŭ ĉu mi ĝin lernos por longa tempo. Mi ĝin legos. Sed mi ne tute scias kiam mi finos ĝin. Mi jam vidis jutuban filmeton kiu diris ke oni ne bezonas studi lingvon por longa tempo. Se iu studas por determinita tempo, ekzemple 30 minutoj, ĝi jam sufiĉas por lerni lingvon, ĉar ĝi estos continua kaj konsekvenca procezo. Do mi kredas ke legi por 10 aŭ 20 minutoj ĉiutage iĝos min lerni la latinan.

Bone, eble mi afiŝos ĉi tie kion mi lernis aŭ kion mi trovis interesa.

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