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Dinosaur and megafauna at the WA Museum, Boola Bardip, 1.03.2021

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Million-year-old mammoth DNA rewrites animal’s evolutionary tree
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bring back megafauna 2k21

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OSTEOCHS no evolution

basically the tauros of the region. based on steppe bison, aurochs, woolly rhinos, and just general ice-age megafauna. i guess he could be ground typing because of the skull head (like cubone) ?  but i like normal type better

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“While other continents were sharing many of their predators amongst themselves, as they were connected by land, Australia’s isolation caused many of its normally docile herbivorous species to turn carnivorous.”

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Originally posted by the-undead-page-of-space

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feel like pure shit just want them back 😞😞

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The Cave Of The Hundred Mammoths

The Rouffignac cave is a cave located in the department of Dordogne in France and is also known as the cave of the hundred mammoths thanks to its 255  cave paintings of which 62% represent a mammoth. The cave itself is big, it has over 10 kilometers of underground passageways and shafts that lead to even deeper levels not fully explored. In total, 12 kilometers of the cave has been explored and visitors can take a tour on a train that will take them about 2km far into the cave.

Earliest mentions of the cave dates back to 1575 when writer and painter François Belleforest described strange paintings and footprints of various animals in his work ‘Cosmographie Universelle’. During the 19th century, the cave became a tourist attraction because of the paintings but nobody yet realised that these paintings were actually made during the paleolithic era.

It wasn’t until the 1950’s when several researchers (Romain Robert, Louis-René Nougier, Charles and Louis Plassard) entered the cave and noticed that the paintings inside were of great historical value. In 1957 the cave became a listed site and it was finally confirmed that the art inside, is in fact prehistoric in nature and thus of incredible archeological value.

The art inside the cave is not the oldest art found in Europe. The art of Rouffignac is dated back to about 13,000 years ago from the Magdalenian culture, in comparison the art of Chauvet cave is about 30,000 years old. What is quite fascinating is the fact that 62% of all the paintings, 158 in total, represent a mammoth. There are 29 depictions of bison, 16 of a horse, 12 of an ibex, 11 of a rhino, 6 of a snake, 4 of a human, 1 of a bear and 14 abstract paintings.

Some of the art has been made in quite difficult positions inside the cave, it’s amazing to think that humans were able to explore this cave 13,000 years ago and make these pieces of art. There must have been a reason behind all of this art because no one would enter this cave that deeply to create art in pitch black and dangerous surroundings in prehistoric times, even with all of our current gear and knowledge humans wouldn’t even do this for fun in the 21st century. The possible spiritual meaning behind cave art still remains a mystery yet an incredibly fascinating topic to explore.

Why is there such an abundance of mammoth cave art in Rouffignac? We actually have no idea why. Perhaps our ancestors viewed the woolly mammoth as a particularly sacred animal, maybe their spiritual beliefs were based on the spirit of the mammoth. These are just wild guesses because in truth, it is impossible to find any archeological evidence inside this cave that explains the reason why there are so many depictions of a mammoth. One thing that is certain is that the mammoth continues to fascinate human beings until this very day, I myself got a tattoo of a woolly mammoth based on art found inside this cave.

Here are images of:
Rouffignac cave art

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Rediscovery Of The Woolly Mammoth

The woolly mammoth is a species of mammoth that unfortunately went extinct around 10,000 years ago, this animal is also seen as the symbol of ancient European ice ages. Small populations of woolly mammoths continued to survive on the Wrangel Island in Russia until as recent as 4,000 years ago. There were still some mammoths left when the great pyramids in Egypt were being built.

Even though all mammoth species are now extinct, their legacy continues to live on in the minds of modern humans. Their bones and tusks are still being used until this very day. The indigenous cultures of Siberia and North America still contain myths explaining the presence of mammoths and other extinct megafauna. Whether these myths are based on ancient memories of ancestors who have witnessed these animals or based on found remains throughout the centuries is not fully known.

Indigenous Siberian people believe that the remains of woolly mammoths were once part of an animal able to crawl underground, also an explanation why earthquakes happen. If a mammoth was unfortunate enough to crawl upwards and reach the surface, it would die. This is one of the legends surrounding the woolly mammoth that has survived until this day. Indigenous north American people had similar stories of mammoths living underground. Another native-American legend, of the Inupiat people, suggests that mammoths were primordial giants.

Long before the western world started to seriously study ancient extinct species, parts of mammoth remains, such as their tusks, were imported into Europe. This precious ivory is still worth an incredible amount of money but back in the medieval ages, no one thought this ivory came from an extinct species. Europeans had several explanations for woolly mammoth remains: they probably belonged to an escaped herd of elephants during the Roman republic, they were the actual war elephants of Hannibal, they are simply just elephants who wandered a bit too far north or they are the victims of the great flood described in the biblical book genesis.

The first person who recognized that these remains were actually part of an extinct species of elephant was Hans Sloane back in 1728. Sloane published a paper in that year what can now be considered as the first scientific research on the woolly mammoth. 10 years later another researcher, Johann Philipp Breyne, also researched mammoth fossils and came to the conclusion that they are a species of elephant. Both men were however clueless on how these ‘elephants’ got in Siberia and proposed the theory that they were victims of Noah’s flood.

It took until 1796 when these mysterious 'elephant’ remains from Siberia were finally identified as a completely different species, not modern elephants as thought before but an entirely new species. French anatomist Georges Cuvier was the first to identify the woolly mammoth as a mammoth species and the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach gave the species its official scientific name 'Mammuthus Primigenius’.

In 1806, a Russian botanist Mikhail Adams journeyed towards northeastern Siberia to witness the most complete woolly mammoth skeleton found back in 1799. (the most complete of that time period, more complete and intact mammoth remains have been found since 1799) It was the first time that the entire skeleton, without the tusks, was found. The remains were brought back to St Petersburg and an attempt was made to reassemble the skeleton. There was however one problem, no one knew how the tusks would have looked like so the tusks were mounted on the wrong sides so that the curves went outwards instead of inwards. This mistake wasn’t corrected until 1899 and is still visible in the famous sketch of Adams mammoth.

Nowadays multiple subspecies of mammoth have been discovered, the woolly mammoth is just one of the mammoth species that once roamed the earth. It took until 2005 before researchers were finally able to complete a full mitochondrial genome profile of the woolly mammoth. 10 years later in 2015 it was confirmed that the closest living relative of the woolly mammoth is the asian elephant. If an attempt is ever made to bring back the woolly mammoth, our modern asian elephants can help us out. But the subject of bringing the woolly mammoth back to life again is a topic for another post.

Here are images of:
Woolly mammoth by Mihin89,
The Adams mammoth right now, with the tusks in the correct position,
Sketch of Adams mammoth with the tusks on the wrong side,

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Extinct giant ground sloth, below, and existing tree sloth, above. Extinct Animals. 1905.

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We spent the morning mountain biking on a track just north of Margaret River called “Compartment 10.” It’s well maintained and very fun with options for beginners and experienced riders. I heard Levi say many times “This is cool!”

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We rewarded ourselves with chips( Dad, these are French fries ) from a shop called Squid Lips.

A couple of geologists were sitting next to us and we asked them how these long lines of rose quartz are caused in the granite rocks we’ve been hopping. They explained that it could be due to a change in heat and pressure 1 billion years ago when the magma was cooling which forms crystals. Ocean water rushes in to mix with the iron to give the crystals a red tint.

We saw more evidence of this over at Rockpool just north of our campsite at Conto Campgrounds.

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We ended the day with a trip to Mammoth Cave. It was the first time Levi voluntarily wanted to go into a cave. Three years ago he was too scared of the dark to finish off Jewel cave. I was scared of the dark too at that age. Rock on buddy!

The cool thing about Mammoth Cave is learning that the bones of giant Australian fauna were first found here as well as extinct species like the 3m(9’10”) tall, snub snouted kangaroo. It had longer arms for grabbing onto branches to munch on leaves and one toe on each leg. Scientists are not sure why they went extinct but it coincides with both climate change and human involvement more than 60,000 years ago.

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If you geek out as much as I do on Australian Megafauna then check out this web site:

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Whats this new art… Sorry my PC has been on its deathbed for months, so progress has been slow and unreliable, but my new rig is up and running. Easing back in to things with a rough shot at a dire wolf, based on new evidence that it was from an earlier lineage of canid and only happened to converge with wolves. Looked at some of its posited loose relatives such as black backed jackals and maned wolves.

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- zaz pretty much immediately begins to see emma as a tribe member since thats how shes used to defining relationships. shes staying in emmas apartment, therefore theyre tribemates. she has no idea wether her and emma are actually related but she basically adopts her as an ancestor anyway

- the tribe mentality extends to paul but she isnt quite as attatched to him. shes completely baffled at how slow him and emmas relationship is going

- this means that zaz is pretty defensive of emma. she decides that zoey and nora and half of beanies customers are her sworn enemies as quickly as she decided emma is her family

- at first emma only says her apartment is haunted as a joke, but when it becomes unavoidalby apparent that it is haunted shes too tired from work and college to be too bothered. its pretty much a ‘yeah, this might as well happen’. as long as the ghost itsnt wrecking her shit or trying to kill her its fine. if not, she can just give it a timeout in a salt circle.

- theyre both bi and have ADHD you cant change my mind

the rest of these might be considered a lil spoilery but its not something im concerned about keeping hidden and if you know the bbc show ghosts (which this was inspired by) it wont come as a suprise. basically, emma (but not paul) will eventually be able to see and talk to zazzalil

- emma is a little weirded out to find out that zaz has been following her everywhere but she realises that the ghost is ultimately harmless, and when she learns that zaz is petrified of being left alone she completely understands her need to be with people, to the point where if she really cant bring her somewhere she’ll ask paul to be on ghost duty

- emma is worried that having zaz with her in lectures will be distracting because she assumes shed be confused and keep asking questions but zaz is actually quite quiet during them, and emma is instead distracted by looking at the way she stares in wonder at the sheer complexity of something as basic as a leaf and the experience of watching a person’s mind get blown repeatedly

- zaz gives emma advice about interacting with tim since her last memories of her son are him at the same age and 9 year old boys havent changed all that much since the stone age, shes confused as to why emma isnt actively helping to raise tim since shes used to a far more ‘it takes a village’ approach

- emma is quite an outdoorsy person and zazzalil had no way of not being outdoorsy so they go to the witchwood together and zazzalil passes on some knowledge. this leads to some awkward situations when dog walkers come across emma barefoot halfway up a tree debating with the air about eating squirrels

- emma plays guitar, zaz likes to sing, they jam. emma learns some ancient songs and zaz learns some modern ones. zaz’s favourite is could have been me by the struts

- they have movie nights in an effort to teach zaz more about the modern age but things get complicated when zaz has no idea what is based on real life and what are fantasy elements

- zazzalil has the ankle mobility to do a slavic squat, and does frequently. emma does not and zaz does not comprehend why she wont keep her feet flat trying to do it

- sometimes living with zaz is like having a cat. you cannot stop her from climbing on furniture, the rules of furniture mean nothing to someone raised in the stone age. her favourite spot is the kitchen counter and emma just has to deal with that

- every so often zaz picks up on modern vocab and completely takes emma off gaurd with it, especially when its a scientific term she picked up from a biology lecture. she once grabbed emma by the shoulders and demanded to know where the ‘fucking megafauna’ is. that one took a while to recover from.

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Every time someone comments that [insert domesticated animal] is “like a dog” I want to scream!! Yes! They are all domesticated! Anthropologically speaking all domesticated animals have evolved in genetically similar ways and it’s really cool and interesting but does NOT mean that these animals can’t be cool in their own ways!!! Cows can be lovey and thats a COW trait! Goats can be dependent and that’s a GOAT trait! Stop saying they are all like dogs and appreciate them independently >:(

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