Trese, as a story that features various mythological creatures from the Philippines, may give the impression that all these beings belong to only one group. That's not how it is. For one, Ibu and Talagbusao are not from the same pantheon.
This book (PDF) is an introduction to Philippine folk spirituality and religion.
Alternative download: https://archive.org/details/the-soul-book-demetrio-cordero-fernando-zialcita-1991
Here's an excerpt relevant to the series.
[Edit 6/14/2021] Just checked. Yep, this is definitely one of Budjette Tan's references. From the Trese: Mass Murders (Visprint ed) afterword:
While doing research for Trese's next villain, I read about the Talagbusao, the god of war, in "The Soul Book" and he sounded like a formidable foe. The more I thought about it, the more it made sense to me that the Kambal needed to be more powerful than any aswang or enkanto.
Assistant Deities and Powers
Below the Lord of the Upper Sky is a host of anitos or diwatas, many of whom can do as they please the more distant they are from him. According to Barton, who studied the Ifugao spirit world (1946), these spirits are believed to be immortal, to change form at will, to become invisible, and to transport themselves quickly through space. There are other attributes associated with these powerful spirits. While they can diagnose and cure illness, they can afflict men with misfortune, ill-luck, disease. They can recover a soul if it has been carried off, but they can also coax away a person's soul. Though they prevent the dead from molesting the living, they too cause death. Indeed they can devour parts of the living human body. Men's minds they influence to suggest courses of conduct, such as payment of debt without losing face; passions they dampen so that men will not fight during a celebration; and stomachs they tie to dull the appetite for food and drink. Those who propitiate them know that these invisible presences can increase rice even after it has been stored in the granary, ward off trespassers, make the hunt safe, and bring victory in battle.
Powerful spirits roughly divide into three categories: ancestor spirits, nature spirits, guardian spirits.
Spirits of Ancestral Heroes
Some ancestors, particularly those who were outstanding in farming, hunting, warfare and the arts, acquired more and more powers in the memory of their descendants as time went on. They became fabulous beings. The more illustrious hero-spirits arc remembered in the great epics. Others arc remembered as culture heroes who taught their people new skills.
Some ancestral heroes (Cole 1916; de los Reyes 1909):
Lumabat - first Bagobo mortal to attain the Skyworld (Cole 1916).
Handiong - the hero of the Bikol epic who freed the land from the ravages of wild animals, brought Bikolanos rice, and planted the fruits.
Lumawig - taught the Bontok headhunting, agriculture, the art of building council houses and men's dwellings, and a code of ethics.
Bantugan - the charming, indestructible, much-wedded hero who could repulse any invasion. His cult probably began when the Maranaws were still animist.
Not all ancestral spirits become deified. Many remain nameless spirits residing in dark majestic trees and in the deep woods.
Nature Spirits reside in the natural environment, such as trees, rocks, crags, rivers and volcanoes. Humanlike, but much more powerful, these unseen beings are credited with feelings and sensibilities. Accordingly they may be offended and thus cause harm, or they may be propitiated and their friendship gained. Some spirits are represented as being sensitive to a fault as many Filipinos are when confronted with an unfamiliar or unpleasant situation. People do create spirits according to their likeness. On the other hand Frank Lynch, the anthropologist, says that the Filipino's care in handling interpersonal relations may in fact be the result rather than the cause of this belief in an environment filled with sensitive spirits (1970). In moving about, he takes care not to displease the many invisibles who could punish him.
Nature spirits can be either malevolent or beneficent. As in Philippine society as a whole, it all depends on how you deal with them. If you ignore them and hurt their dignity, they can make you sick; however, if you acknowledge them and ask permission to pass by and give them offerings on occasion, then they will reward you.
Some nature spirits:
The Lord of the Mound - spirit of an old man who lives in a termite mound. Throughout prehistoric Southeast Asia, the earth mound was a locus of power probably because of its phallic shape. "Tabi, tabi po baka kayo mabunggo" (Excuse me, please, lest I bump you) is the polite way to pass one of these inhabited hills. Though invisible, the nuno can be grazed and thus retaliate with a fever or skin rashes.
The Tree Dwellers - Spirits reportedly resided in trees. Thus the Mandayas, who are the largest ethnic group in southwestern Mindanao, believe that tagbanuwa and tagamaling are spirits who dwell in caves and balete trees. The belief persists to this day even among Christian Filipinos. The Ilokano pugot and the Tagalog kapre are gigantic, cigar-smoking black spirits who sit in deserted houses and up a balete or banyan tree with feet dangling to the ground. They can, however, assume any size they want including that of an infant. Engkantos also dwell in trees. But the term itself and the description of them as tall, fair-skinned and light-haired beings with high-bridged noses is post-hispanic. Engkantos, male or female, sometimes fall in love with mortals and lavish gifts on them (Ramos 1971).
The Babes in the Woods- probably the souls of foetuses or dead children. They arc called by the Ilokanos kibaan. The creature is a foot high, dwells in the fields, can be scalded with boiling water, and even die. The kibaan gift friends with gold, a cloak that confers invisibility and a large cup of coconut which is inexhaustible. To those who throw hot water at them, the kibaan scatter powder which produces a disagreeable affliction (de los Reyes 1909). Closely related is the Tagalog patianak which wails in the forest, like a baby, but inflicts harm. Common in pre-Christian times was the practice of exposing infirm deformed babies in the fields and forests (Alcina 1960). Their heart-wrenching wailing must have given rise to these beliefs.
The Bloodthirsty and Implacable
Among traditional Filipinos, the embodiment of evil is a being that is neither fully human nor fully animal. It stands upright like human beings and has a face; but it preys on human flesh and makes the living sick so that when they die there is carrion for food. Unlike the devil of the Judaeo-Christian-Moslem tradition, this being does not harm the soul by tempting it to sin. The death it causes is physical rather than spiritual. Other spirits can be negotiated with: offerings and kind words win their toleration if not help. It is not possible to do so with these implacable beings. Thus people fear them the most.
The busaw feared by the Bagobos of Davao, people the air, the mountains and the forest. They are limitless in number. Most malignant is the busaw called tigbanua. One eye gapes in the middle of the forehead; a hooked chin two spans long upturns to catch the drops of blood that drip from the mouth; and coarse black hair bristles on the body (Benedict 1916). It frequents graves, empty houses and solitary mountain trails. Indeed it may make an appearance at any place outside the safety of one's home.
They are believed to preside over specific human activities such as birth, marriage, and death; over hunting, fishing, farming and fighting. Beneficent and powerful, guardian spirits generally rule from the sky; some, however, stay in their areas of responsibility on earth or in the underworld.
SOME GUARDIAN GODS
ON THE FARM
lkapati- Tagalog goddess of fertility. guardian anito of agriculture
Magbangal - Bukidnon planter god who became the constellation that appears to signal the start of the planting season
Damolag - an anito of the early Zambals who protects the fruiting rice from winds and typhoons
Lakan-bakod - Tagalog guardian god of the fruits of the earth who dwells m certam kinds of plants used as fences. Some anitos carry the title "Lakan" or Prince They could have been deified kinglets
Pamahandi - protector of carabaos and horses of the Bukidnon.
Amansinaya - anito of fishermen of the ancient Tagalogs to whom they offer their first catch. Hence the term pa-sinaya ("for Sinaya") still used today. Following the theory of god-making, Amansinaya could be the soul of a maiden who was drowned and became an anito of the water.
Libtakan- god of sunrise. sunset and good weather of the Manobo.
Makabosog - a merciful diwata of the Bisayans who provides food for the hungry. (He was once a chief in the Araut River on the coast of Panay)
IN THE FORESTS
Amani kable - ancient Tagalog anito of hunters.
Makaboteng - Tinggian spirit guardian of deer and wild hogs.
WHEN REARING A FAMILY
Mingan - goddess of the early Pampangos mate of the god Suku (Consorts of the gods fall under the " guardian" category)
Katambay - guardian anito for individuals, a kind of inborn guardian angel of the Bicols.
Malimbung - a kind of Aphrodite of the Bagobos This goddess made man crave for sexual satisfaction
Tagbibi- diwata protector of children of the mountain tribes of Mindanao
WHILE AT WAR
Mandarangan and Darago - Bagobo god and goddess of war Mandarangan is believed to reside in the crater of Apo Volcano on a throne of fire and blood
Talagbusao - the uncontrollable Bukidnon god of war who takes the form of a warrior with big red eyes wearing a red garment. This deity can enter a mortal warnor's body and make him fight fiercely to avenge a wrong. But Talagbusao can also drive him to insanity by incessant demand for the blood of pigs, fowls and humans.
Masiken - guardian of the underworld of the lgorots, whose followers have tails
lbu - queen of the Manobo underworld whose abode is down below at the pillars of the world.
This information came from the following sources: Jocano 1969; de los Reyes 1909; Garvan 1931; Garvan 1941; Cole 1922; Benedict 1916; Dadole 1989; Mallari-Wilson 1968
Demetrio, F. R., Cordero-Fernando, G. and Zialcita, F. N. (1991). The soul book. GCF Books.
veni vidi vici - na jaemin imagine pt. 2
hi! thank you all so much for liking the first part of this story 😊 hope you enjoy the next part! as always tysm for the love and support💛
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It’s one of those nights again. One when everything feels too much, when sleep just won’t come to you no matter how hard you try. So your solution? Go out for a drink, or two.
You drink just enough to still know your way home by yourself. A habit you only do when you know your brother isn’t home waiting for you. You’d hate for Jisung to see you like this. Unkept, a little to lost and drunk in your own worries and alcohol
Before making your way back home you went to the closest open convenient store since the munchies started to kick in.
It just so happen that Jaemin just came back from the tracks, planning to get a quick midnight snack before heading back to his apartment.
You grabbed your favorite ramen from the shelf, some cookies and banana milk before making your way to the cashier.
While having an internal debate you didn’t notice someone walking behind you, Jaemin wasn’t looking infront of him either. reading the label of his ramen while he walks towards the cashier. Then he crashed with something making him look up, about to tell the other person off but then you turn around so now the two of you were face to face
“Jaemin?” you say, genuinely surprised to see him. Instantly Jaemin smiles down at you, his night just got better. Looking down at the snacks on your hands, looks like he isn’t the only one going for a late night snack run
“Got hungry too?” he ask
“Yea, Jisung ate all the ramen” he chuckles at your answer, “Is he here with you? He didn’t come out tonight”
“No, he’s over at Chenle’s. Game night”
“Ah, so it’s just you. Wait, you walked all the way here alone? This late at night?”
You nodded, “Why?” you ask him
“It’s dangerous to be walking around at this hour, people who just went drinking and some other creeps” he says, remembering a group of guys he saw before going in the store.
“It’s fine, never had a problem before. Plus, I can handle myself” you mumble, he probably haven’t noticed you’re a bit intoxicated yourself
“I heard, Jisung did mention you took self defense classes” he looked behind you to see the line on the cashier empty “Are you going to pay for that?”
“Are you drunk?” Jaemin asks, bending his head down to look straight into your eyes. “Uh no”
He shakes his head before he took the snacks off of your hands, taking it to the counter along with his items
“What are you doing?” you ask the guy, standing behind him as he pulls his card out of wallet to pay for both of your snacks
“Yes I can see that, but why did you take my snacks? I just told you I’m not hungry anymore”
Taking the card back before putting back in his wallet, then taking the bag from the guy saying a quick thank you. You did the same before following him towards where you can get hot water for the ramen,
“Jaemin!” he just chuckles at you so you this time you pinch him on the side, “Hey! What was that for?”
“Stop ignoring me!” again he just smiles at you before turning his attention back to the snacks. You watch him prepare both of your ramen cups, passing the bag of other foods to you
“Are you even in the right mind to cook ramen right now?” he asks, then pressed on the button to start the timer before turning to look at you. Your face says it all, it was cute Jaemin thinks.
“To be honest? I’m not so sure”
After that he didn’t say much. Taking quick glances between you and the food, keeping a close eye on you. It’s a good thing he took a detour before going home, just thinking about you walking home alone like this or even staying out this late at night while drunk doesn’t settle well with him.
“You didn’t have to pay for it though, now I owe you” you mumbled
“You can just buy me ramen next time, or you can cook one for me back at your place” he says
“Did you just... ask me to ask you to eat ramen at my place?” you ask him, he doesn’t answer you instead you hear the timer go off signaling the noodles were done cooking.
Jaemin grabs a tray to put both of your food before walking towards the exit to sit on the empty tables outside the store, you following behind
“Why? Don’t tell me you can’t cook ramen?” he asks you, sitting down on one of the plastic chairs before occupying the seat next to his. He separates one of the chopsticks before passing it to you.
It should feel weird, him doing all these things for you. But oddly enough it felt natural. No awkwardness between the two of you even though you recently just met.
“You do know what means right?” you ask him
“When you ask a guy over for ramen?” he shoots you a confused look, “Oh come on, don’t be like that”
“Be like what? I really don’t know” he tells you
“Nevermind then, it’s better off you don’t know” you mumble before turning your attention back to your food, Jaemin doing the same.
The two of you sit there and enjoy your midnight snack, exchanging a few words here and there. Again, it felt natural being there with him. Jaemin feeling the same, he could definitely get used to this.
“What brings you here anyways?” you ask him, now done with your ramen and moved on to the other snacks you’re sharing with him
“Just got back from the tracks, just like you I wanted some ramen” he answers,
“If you don’t mind me asking, what got you started on racing?” you ask him, genuinely curious about this.
“For fun, I tried go kart at first. Me and my bestfriend went when we were young, guess I liked it so when I finally got my license I started to take interest on racing. We met with some other guys from the tracks” he answers, you nod in understanding. Once again silence falling between the two of you.
“How about you, what got you drinking tonight?” he asks, testing the waters to see if you’ll give him any answer.
“Life” you say. He could tell you didn’t want to talk about it so he didn’t push it
“It’s getting late, I should give you a ride home” Jaemin tells you, you can’t really tell how late it is but it’s probably past midnight already.
“No, it’s okay I can walk home”
“Please, I insist. I’ll sleep better knowing you got home safely” that sentence made you go quiet. Your resolve crumbling a bit.
“Fine, now I owe you twice” you tell him jokingly, “Just add it to the list” he tells you, leading the way to his car. He opens the car door for you, letting you get in first before jogging over the passenger side.
When he got in, he starts the engine making sure you got your seatbelt on first before driving off. But before that he passes his phone over to you, confusing you for a second
“It’s connected to the car speaker, you can just choose whatever song you like” you noticed it didn’t have a passcode, his wallpaper something simple.
Meanwhile Jaemin drives off, he already knows where you live from all the times he drove Jisung home so he didn’t ask you.
He usually don’t let strangers in his car, it’s like his personal space. But right now he doesn’t mind, he likes it even. He’s even thinking it would be nice to have more late night drives with you.
When you arrive at your house, Jaemin once again stepped out of the car first to open your door.
“Thank you, for driving me home and for the snacks. I owe you” you tell him, smiling at the guy.
“No worries, like I said you can just invite me over for ramen”
“You really don’t know what that means?” you laugh lightly, not believing he doesn’t know but it looks like he’s telling the truth
“No, and you won’t tell me” you just shoot him another smile
"Do you want to come in?” you ask him, it was just an innocent question really. You asked out of courtesy and also you’re still drunk.
“I can walk you to the door to make sure you’ll get in safely, then I’ll go”
And that’s what he did exactly. He opened the passenger door for you before walking you towards your door, you were wobbling a bit so he made sure to keep an arm out for you. Walking just right behind you incase you fall. He took the keys out of your purse to open the door for you, the he followed you in.
The halls of your home still familiar even with your drunk mind, easily finding your room and jumping on the bed.
Turning to look at Jaemin who’s standing by the door, “Come here” you motioned for him to come closer. Jaemin taking steps like you’re in control of his body until he was standing infront of you
“Do you want to kiss me?” you asks him, looking up at the guy
“Huh, me too” he chuckles at your answer but doesn’t make a single move
“Not right now though, you’re too drunk” he adds, pushing you back by your forehead using his finger. Gently and playfully,
“Why not? It’s not like anyone’s home to hear us”
“That I’m not worried about. I’m not going to kiss you when you’re drunk”
“I’m giving you consent right now to ruin me” okay you’re definitely very very drunk still, you’d never say that sober.
Jaemin’s mom raised him to be respectful and a gentleman. Even though he wanted to finally taste your lips, give you all the kisses you want and make you his tonight he won’t. You probably won’t remember anything tomorrow.
“Maybe you can tell me that when there’s no alcohol in your system anymore” he tells you,
“Then I wouldn’t have the courage to say it”
“It’s just me, you can tell me anything. You weren’t scared of me the first time we met, even threatened to run me over with my own car” now he’s tucking you under the covers, making sure you’re comfortable before he leaves.
“I like you, is that weird” you tell him, feeling even drowsier now that you’re tucked in your bed while Jaemin caresses your cheek with his finger gently
“I like you, too” he whispers.
It should scare him, just how easy it was to admit when you and him just met. But it didn’t. He just smiles down at you, watching you slowly finally doze off. He took some advil from your medicine cabinet and a glass of water, putting it on your beside table along with a note with his number.
Making sure to lock the door behind him before leaving. Even though he didn’t want to leave you but he knows tomorrow would be another day.
A few days passed since then.
“Jisung! Did you use all the hot water again- Oh what are you doing here?”
You didn’t expect to see Na Jaemin sitting by the kitchen island at 7am in the morning, your brother rummaging through the kitchen cabinet for snacks. Looking back and forth between him and Jaemin. The other guy waving at you awkwardly, you didn’t call or text him after that drunken encounter.
It was a bit blurry in your memories but you do remember some moments. One thing you’re sure of is Jaemin was the one who drove you home.
“Ask me first if I showered, but yes I think I did. It was cold this morning!” Jisung answers causally, “You didn’t tell me we have a visitor” you say
“Oh yea, I’m going on a trip with the guys. I brought Jaemin hyung so he can attest that I will indeed be safe and we’re just going to the beach and I will be back before you know it so my dearest sister can I please go?”
Looking back to Jaemin to ask him if this was true, “Me and some of the other guys are going to the beach just for the day. I think you’ve seen them when you went to the tracks once. Jeno, Chenle and Haechan”
“You know Haechan?”
You let out a chuckle at his question, “She dated him” Jisung answered so casually making the two adults whip their heads towards him as if he shouldn’t have said what he said
“You dated Haechan?!” “Jisung!” you and Jaemin spoke at the same time
“We went out a couple of times, we’re still friends. Next topic please, what why are you looking at me like that?” you ask Jaemin who just shook his head at you
“So am I allowed to go?”
“One, no drinking. You can’t hold your liquor well so don’t even try hiding it from me. Two, call me if anything happens. Three, stay safe”
Jisung smiles at you before running back upstairs to get the bags he already packed, like a child excited to go to his first fieldtrip.
“You can come with us, if you want” Jaemin says
“No thanks, I think my brother wouldn’t like that”
“I’d like it” he says, hoping it would sway even for a bit but you just snorted at his line making the boy smile nonetheless even though you just indirectly rejected him.
“Would you like it if your sister tagged along on your trip with your friends?” you ask him, “I’m an only child” he answers
“But no for real, you can come with us. Get away for a bit” Jaemin adds trying to persuade you, if it was any other girl maybe they would’ve been swayed by now. But not you, you just shoot him a smile to let him down gently once again.
You hear Jisung running back down the stairs
“I’m good, but just in case you forgot if anything happens to my brother-”
“You’ll run me over with my own car, yes ma’am I haven’t forgotten”
You shot him a smile, throwing an apple towards him which he easily caught.
“Ji, remember what I said. Have fun” you tell your brother before he excitedly hopped towards the front door, letting out a chuckle at how cute your younger brother is
“Guess I’ll see you later when I drive him home” Jaemin says, standing up from his seat, “Have fun” you tell him “And drive safe”
“Well, have fun being at home I guess” you chuckle at him, walking with him to the door. Before he goes though, Jaemin turns to face you again
“Don’t invite any guy over for ramen though” It’s like a lightbulb turning in your head, you recall a conversation you had with him that night.
“So you do know what it means” you tell him
“I asked someone else because you didn’t tell me”
Raising a brow at him, as if silently asking who was his source of information, “Jeno laughed when I asked him what it meant”
You once again laughed at his answer, “Noted on that, plus I haven’t went grocery shopping yet so no ramen here”
“I’ll come with, we can go tomorrow. Don’t go out late tonight though if you want snacks, just order in”
“Okay mom, you should go” you said, jutting your chin towards your younger brother who was waiting for Jaemin in his car. “Drive safe” you tell him
“Always do” he says with a wink before following your brother out. “Go back in, don’t worry about Ji I got him”
“And Y/N, you know that note I left”
“What about it?”
“There’s a number you can call there, you know with your phone. Call when you need anything” he tells you
“And I mean this, anytime if you need anyone. Don’t say you’re fine when it isn’t true. Call me, I’ll pickup”
It was so easy for him to make a promise he’d pickup but it’s hard for you to accept when you’ve been let down so many times.
Usually you’re not the one to be scared to gamble, not scared to screw up. You believe whatever happen is meant to happen. Mistakes are made for you to learn. And right now you’re scared, scared to fall straight into him, gamble everything you have and to feel too much too soon.
For now you don’t do anything but nod and smile back at him. Keeping it silent as you watch him drive away.