“When people arrived at Bletchley Park for the first time, there was a special ceremony where the importance of secrecy was drummed into their heads, and they were made to sign a document based on the Official Secrets Act, which said that severe criminal consequences would happen if anyone ever disclosed anything about what happened at Bletchley Park. And in case anyone was in any doubt about it, at the end of the war the head of Bletchley Park sent round a memo telling everyone that the code of silence applied not just during wartime but forever. So, nobody was allowed to talk about what they had done until many years afterwards.”
- John Dermot Turing, writer and biographer of his uncle Alan Turing, from Alan Turing and the Hidden Heroes of Bletchley Park
The Warsaw Uprising, which broke out on August 1, 1944, was the largest resistance operation in German-occupied Europe during World War II. For 63 days, the Poles fought on their own, receiving only a small amount of support as part of the airdrops by the Allies.
The Church of Scotland Matron Who Defied the Nazis
"If these children need me in days of sunshine, how much more do they need me in days of darkness?"
These are the words of Jane Haining, a Scottish teacher who died at Auschwitz in 1944. She was the matron at the Scottish Mission in Budapest, Hungary, where Jewish children were educated. She was like a mother to many, remembered as being 'kind and welcoming and warm'.
Due to the growing threat from Nazi Germany, the Church of Scotland was increasingly alarmed for the safety of its missionaries and sent repeated letters urging Jane Haining to come home. She refused, penning the quote above.
Nazi troops marched into Budapest in March 1944 and within weeks, Haining's sympathy for the Jewish children she took care of made her an easy target. She was arrested on suspicion of "espionage on behalf of England" and sent to Auschwitz, where more than a million human beings were killed, the vast majority of whom were Jewish.