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#the surrealist revolution in france
cinematic-literature · 5 months ago
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Tick, Tick... Boom! (2021) by Lin-Manuel Miranda
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A Choice of Catastrophes (1979) by Isaac Asimov
The Surrealist Revolution in France (1969) by Herbert S. Gershman
Lope De Vega: Five Plays (1961) by Lope Felix De Vega Carpio
Son of a Wanted Man (1984) by Louis L'Amour
Yesterday Is Dead (1976) by Dallas Barnes
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conformi · 3 years ago
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Jean-Jacques Lequeu, Frontispice de la “Nouvelle méthode appliquée aux principes élémentaires du dessin”, 1792 VS Salvador Dalí, Venus de Milo aux tiroirs, 1936
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justforbooks · a year ago
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Eugène Atget was born on February 12, 1857. He was a French flâneur and a pioneer of documentary photography, noted for his determination to document all of the architecture and street scenes of Paris before their disappearance to modernization. Most of his photographs were first published by Berenice Abbott after his death. Though he sold his work to artists and craftspeople, and became an inspiration for the surrealists, he did not live to see the wide acclaim his work would eventually receive.
His father, carriage builder Jean-Eugène Atget, died in 1862, and his mother, Clara-Adeline Atget née Hourlier died shortly after; he was an orphan at age seven. He was brought up by his maternal grandparents in Bordeaux and after finishing secondary education joined the merchant navy.
Atget moved to Paris in 1878. He failed the entrance exam for acting class but was admitted when he had a second try. Because he was drafted for military service he could attend class only part-time, and he was expelled from drama school.
Still living in Paris, he became an actor with a travelling group, performing in the Paris suburbs and the provinces. He met actress Valentine Delafosse Compagnon, who became his companion until her death. He gave up acting because of an infection of his vocal cords in 1887, moved to the provinces and took up painting without success. When he was thirty he made his first photographs, of Amiens and Beauvais, which date from 1888.
In 1890, Atget moved back to Paris and became a professional photographer, supplying documents for artists: studies for painters, architects, and stage designers.
Starting in 1898, institutions such as the Musée Carnavalet and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris bought his photographs. The latter commissioned him ca. 1906 to systematically photograph old buildings in Paris. In 1899 he moved to Montparnasse.
While being a photographer Atget still called himself an actor, giving lectures and readings.
During World War I Atget temporarily stored his archives in his basement for safekeeping and almost completely gave up photography. Valentine's son Léon was killed at the front.
In 1920–21, he sold thousands of his negatives to institutions. Financially independent, he took up photographing the parks of Versailles, Saint-Cloud and Sceaux and produced a series of photographs of prostitutes.
Berenice Abbott, while working with Man Ray, visited Atget in 1925, bought some of his photographs, and tried to interest other artists in his work. She continued to promote Atget through various articles, exhibitions and books, and sold her Atget collection to the Museum of Modern Art in 1968.
In 1926, Atget's partner Valentine died, and before he saw the full-face and profile portraits that Abbott took of him in 1927, showing him “slightly stooped…tired, sad, remote, appealing”, Atget died on 4 August in 1927, in Paris.
Atget took up photography in the late 1880s, around the time that photography was experiencing unprecedented expansion in both commercial and amateur fields.
Atget photographed Paris with a large-format wooden bellows camera with a rapid rectilinear lens, an instrument that was fairly current when he took it up, but which he continued to use even when hand-held and more efficient large-format cameras became available. The optical vignetting often seen at some corners of his photographs is due to his having repositioned the lens relative to the plate on the camera—exploiting one of the features of bellows view cameras as a way to correct perspective and control perspective and keep vertical forms straight. The negatives show four small clear rebates (printing black) where clips held the glass in the plate-holder during exposure. The glass plates were 180×240mm Bande Bleue (Blue Ribbon) brand with a general purpose gelatin-silver emulsion, fairly slow, that necessitated quite long exposures, resulting in the blurring of moving subjects seen in some of his pictures. Interest in Atget's work has prompted the recent scientific analysis of Atget's negatives and prints in Parisian collections and in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
In Intérieurs Parisiens, a series of photographs he took for the Bibliotéque Nationale, he included a view of his own simple darkroom with trays for processing negatives and prints, a safelight, and printing frames. After taking a photograph, Atget would develop, wash, and fix his negative, then assign the negative to one of his filing categories with the next consecutive number that he would write the negative number in graphite on the verso of the negative and also scratch it into the emulsion. He contact-printed his negatives onto pre-sensitized, commercially available printing-out papers; albumen paper, gelatin-silver printing-out paper, or two types of matte albumen paper that he used mainly after WW1. The negative was clamped into a printing frame under glass and against a sheet of albumen photographic printing out paper, which was left out in the sun to expose. The frame permitted inspection of the print until a satisfactory exposure was achieved, then Atget washed, fixed and toned his print with gold toner, as was the standard practice when he took up photography.
Atget did not use an enlarger, and all of his prints are the same size as their negatives. Prints would be numbered and labelled on their backs in pencil then inserted by the corners into four slits cut in each page of albums. Additional albums were assembled based on a specific themes that might be of interest to his clients, and separate from series or chronology.
By 1891 Atget advertised his business with a shingle at his door, remarked later by Berenice Abbott, that announced “Documents pour Artistes”. Initially his subjects were flowers, animals, landscapes, and monuments; sharp and meticulous studies centred simply in the frame and intended for artists' use.
Atget then embarked on a series of picturesque views of Paris which include documentation of the small trades in his series Petits Métiers. He made views of gardens in the areas surrounding Paris, in the summer of 1901, photographing the gardens at Versailles, a challenging subject of large scale and with combinations of natural and architectural and sculptural elements which he would revisit until 1927, learning to make balanced compositions and perspectives.
Early in the 1900s, Atget began to document “Old Paris,” reading extensively in order to sympathetically focus on Paris architecture and environments dating prior to the French Revolution, concern over the preservation of which ensured him commercial success. He framed the winding streets to show the historic buildings in context, rather than making frontal architectural elevations.
Atget's specialisation in imagery of Old Paris expanded his clientele. Amongst his scant surviving documents was his notebook, known by the word Repertoire on its cover (the French repertoire meaning a thumb-indexed address book or directory, but also defined, aptly in actor Atget's case, as 'a stock of plays, dances, or items that a company or a performer knows or is prepared to perform'). The book is now in the MoMA collection, and in it he recorded the names and addresses of 460 clients; architects, interior decorators, builders and their artisans skilled in ironwork, wood panelling, door knockers, also painters, engravers, illustrators, and set designers, jewellers René Lalique and Weller, antiquarians and historians, artists including Tsuguharu Foujita, Maurice de Vlaminck and Georges Braque, well-known authors, editors, publishers Armand Colin and Hachette, and professors, including the many who donated their own collections of his photographs to institutions. The address book lists also contacts at publications, such as L’Illustration, Revue Hebdomadaire, Les Annales politiques et litteraires, and l’Art et des artistes. Institutional collectors of Old Paris documents, including archives, schools, and museums were also a keen clientele and brought him commercial success, with commissions from the Bibliotèque Historique de la Ville de Paris in 1906 and 1911 and the sale of various albums of photographs to the Bibliotèque Nationale
Atget's photographs attracted the attention of, and were purchased by, artists such as Henri Matisse, Marcel Duchamp and Picasso in the 1920s, as well as Maurice Utrillo, Edgar Degas and André Derain, some of whose views are seen from identical vantage-points at which Atget took pictures, and were likely made with the assistance of his photographs bought from the photographer for a few cents.
By the end of his career, Atget had worked methodically and concurrently on thirteen separate series of photographs including 'Landscape Documents', 'Picturesque Paris', 'Art in Old Paris', 'Environs', 'Topography of Old Paris', 'Tuileries', 'Vielle France', 'Interiors', 'Saint Cloud', 'Versailles', 'Parisian Parks', 'Sceaux' and a smaller series on costumes and religious arts, returning to subjects after they had been put aside for many years.
In 1929, eleven of Atget's photographs were shown at the Film und Foto Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart.
The U.S. Library of Congress has some 20 prints made by Abbott in 1956. The Museum of Modern Art purchased the Abbott/Levy collection of Atget's work in 1968. MoMA published a four-volume series of books based on its four successive exhibitions of Atget's life and work, between 1981 and 1985.
In 2001, the Philadelphia Museum of Art acquired the Julien Levy Collection of Photographs, the centerpiece of which includes 361 photographs by Atget. Many of these photographs were printed by Atget himself and purchased by Levy directly from the photographer. Others arrived in Levy's possession when he and Berenice Abbott entered a partnership to preserve Atget's studio in 1930. Eighty-three prints in the Levy Collection were made by Abbott posthumously as exhibition prints that she produced directly from Atget's glass negatives. Additionally, the Levy Collection included three of Atget's photographic albums, crafted by the photographer himself. The most complete is an album of domestic interiors titled Intérieurs Parisiens Début du XXe Siècle, Artistiques, Pittoresques & Bourgeois. The other two albums are fragmentary. Album No. 1, Jardin des Tuileries has only four pages still intact, and the other lacks a cover and title but contains photographs from numerous Parisian parks. In total, the Philadelphia Museum of Art holds approximately 489 objects attributed to Atget.
Atget, a Retrospective was presented at the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris in 2007.
The Atget crater on the planet Mercury is named after him, as is Rue Eugène-Atget in the 13th arrondissement of Paris.
Although no statement by Atget about his technique or aesthetic approach survives, he did sum up his life's work in a letter to the Minister of Fine Arts;
For more than 20 years I have been working alone and of my own initiative in all the old streets of Old Paris to make a collection of 18 × 24cm photographic negatives: artistic documents of beautiful urban architecture from the 16th to the 19th centuries…today this enormous artistic and documentary collection is finished; I can say that I possess all of Old Paris
Daily inspiration. Discover more photos at http://justforbooks.tumblr.com
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keepingupwithlinmanuel · 2 years ago
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Best of the Decade: Lin-Manuel Miranda on making history with Hamilton
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No 18th-century U.S. statesman had more sway on stage, more measure on music, or better brought the decade’s zeitgeist to its zenith than Treasury treasure Alexander Hamilton, the immigrant hero about whom Lin-Manuel Miranda spun a Pulitzer-winning, genre-defying, generation-defining Broadway musical that demanded, among other things, a renewed spotlight be shone on the theater as a cornerstone of American culture.
Since Hamilton’s February 2015 debut at the Public Theater and subsequent transfer to Broadway that summer, Miranda has had five years, three tours, half a dozen productions, hundreds of pre-show concerts, and a star-stacked mixtape to say just about everything he could about creating one of the biggest Broadway musicals of all time. And he’s heard everything you can hear about it, too.
“The thing that always trips people up is the incongruity of a hip-hop musical from this historical tone, which I always find surprising,” says Miranda, 39, whose previous Broadway successes included 2005’s Tony-winning In the Heights, 2012’s Bring It On the Musical, and the 2009 revival of West Side Story. “Because I live in musical-theater land, I know a disproportionate amount about Argentine politics because of Evita,” he continues. “I know about a failed revolution in France because of f—in’ Les Miz. I know what I know about the Constitution from 1776. To me it was not [out of place] to have a musical address historical subjects, and the musical forms I was applying to it were just musical forms I had been working hard to master. When I started reading [Ron Chernow’s 2004 biography of Hamilton] I thought, ‘Well, this will be my Jesus Christ Superstar. I’ll do a cool concept album and hopefully someone will figure out how to stage it.’ That’s not how it ended up panning out, but all I was looking to was tradition. I’ve been consistently surprised by how groundbreaking it has been perceived as because I feel like I’m just one in a long tradition of people who have used musical theater on unconventional subjects.”
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With its 46-track album quick to become ubiquitous in every high school theater department across the country, a show about the might of the people swiftly belonged to the people. “Anecdotally, I heard from countless families who say Hamilton’s the only thing my family can agree on in the car — it’s not the teen’s music, it’s not the grown-up’s music, it’s sort of everyone’s music, and that has been thrilling,” Miranda beams. He’s heard tales of children with learning disabilities surprising their families by memorizing the words of the show, of kids with behavioral issues who found focus, relaxation, or solace in engaging with the libretto. “I think the tonnage of it is actually something that has its own legacy,” Miranda points out. “The fact that it’s literally so much show and so much music, it becomes this challenge for kids to wrap their minds around, the way my friends and I would memorize the Rent soundtrack and assign each other parts in high school a generation before. It’s done that for a new generation of kids, so that’s been really thrilling to see. More often than not, if someone is asking me for a signature or a selfie, it’s on behalf of their children. A lot of, ‘My kid would kill me if I didn’t ask for this photo.’”
And yet, it’s still tough to crack Miranda’s humility (and through the years, EW has tried). Miranda would sooner list 50 line-item debts he owes to Jay-Z and Les Miz and N.W.A. and ALW and Menken and Moreno and Method Man than praise his own impact or boast of the creative genius others have described him as having. Perhaps that’s why Hamilton’s crossover into the mainstream brought him along with it, into a stimulating new leg of a career that taps into his acting (His Dark Materials), songwriting (Moana), dynamic displays of dramaturgy (Fosse/Verdon), and even downright old-school showmanship (Mary Poppins Returns). But Miranda also uses his star power to redirect his spotlight elsewhere: on hurricanes, on history, on anxiety and artistry and the difficult intersection of both.
Only anecdotes (and EW) force Miranda to acknowledge how Hamilton did in fact change the game, especially in its electrified dialogue around the multiplicity of perspectives and representation in entertainment. He offers one such tale he particularly treasures: “I had seen Ava DuVernay’s A Wrinkle in Time in theaters opening weekend, and they actually quoted my words and the show — I will never forget that as long as I live — and I had the chance to meet her and she told me that when she first met with Disney about the movie, she said, ‘I hope you know I’m doing a Hamilton on this,’” Miranda recalls. “The fact that she used that as shorthand for ‘I’m casting this with actors of color and it’s all hands on deck’ — that was very, very moving to me. The fact that this show is cast the way it is and has been as successful as it has, I think broke down some kind of door. I hope we’ve ended the conversation about nontraditional casting in a very real way. There’s no going backwards now.”
Only going forward, into whatever creative heir to Hamilton lies in our 2020s and his future 40s. “I spent my 20s writing Heights and I spent my 30s writing Hamilton,” says Miranda, whose milestone ages are tied to the turn of the decades themselves (he’ll be 40 on Jan. 16, 2020). “I was actually pretty down at the top of this decade,” he recalls. “I remember the hangover after my 30th birthday party… it was a great party, but I just remember feeling like this was adulthood for real, and [not knowing] what’s going to happen. But it has also been the most fulfilling and joyous decade I’ve had so far. It’s been unreal.” And he’ll enter his 40s in similarly surrealistic fashion: In addition to a movie of Heights arriving in June, he’ll make his directorial debut helming a Netflix film adaptation of Tick, Tick… BOOM!, the 1990 musical by the late Jonathan Larson about a composer’s midlife anxiety over his artistic accomplishments. Miranda doesn’t need to point out the parallels. “We’re shooting ‘30/90’ the day I turn 40, so you wanna talk about decades? Jonathan Larson is almost exactly 20 years older than me, and to begin the decade telling his story, telling the story of the person who allowed me to believe I had a life in the theater? That feels like a really nice way to start.”
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imnothinginparticular · a year ago
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+My top ten films of 2020
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1. Small Axe - Steve McQueen 2. Vitalina Varela - Pedro Costa 3. Malmkrog- Cristi Puiu 4. Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains- Gu Xiaogang 5. The Truth - Kore-eda Hirokazu 6. American Utopia- Spike Lee 7. The Woman Who Ran- Hong Sang-soo 8. Puparia- Shingo Tamagawa 9. Bacurau- Kelber Mendonça Filho 10. Wild Goose Lake - Diao Yinan Honorable mentions: City Hall - Frederick Wiseman Tenet - Christopher Nolan I’m Thinking of Ending Things- Charlie Kaufman 1. Small Axe - Steve McQueen Such a dope cinematic experience…for 5 straight weeks a new McQueen film. “Lovers Rock” was the standout as for the first time since his debut film, “Hunger (2008)” McQueen returns to …restraint. Easily “Mangrove” would of made my list but I just want to lump them all together here since it was single expression he was going for. 2. Vitalina Varela - Pedro Costa You could pause this film 30 times, do a screenshot, and have a photo book that would make top ten lists… just a perfectly composed film. This overtook “Horse Money” as my favorite film by the Portuguese director. 3. Malmkrog- Cristi Puiu A 3 1/2 hour film on a Russian novel opening with an uncut half hour long Dostovsky-esque theodical discussion on good and evil. Such dialectal maneuvers probably aren’t suited for cinema will be the complaint but that would be taking it on its surface layer. This is all in the context of shooing away servants and other hypocrisies of a dying society that becomes literally depicted. It is a human comedy with the irony that we don’t once laugh. Also great that we are starting to see the mature films of the Romanian new wave directors. Like the French where Truffaut went literary, Godard political, and say Rohmer deeper into morality…gone are the loose handheld stylings of the movement that he help start just under two decades ago. Aside from the difference in content (usually events around the 89 revolution) the camerawork is precise. 4. Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains- Gu Xiaogang Named after the most famous work of 14th century painter, Huang Gongwang. The film is equally as serine, more in the vein of the Taiwanese filmmakers Edward Yang and Hou Hsiao-Hsien as incidentally that famous painting is in Taiwan as well…mad I couldn’t find the new film by Ming-liang Tsai btw. 5. The Truth - Kore-eda Hirokazu The director’s first film outside of Japan, shot in France that feels French about a very French actress acting in a film about her life acting in French cinema. Pretty cool that Japan’s classist could go to France and do the same. 6. American Utopia- Spike Lee Taking a page from Dadaist Kurt Schwritters, “Using nonsense to make sense of a world that didn't make sense.” After 1984’s Stop Making Sense what could be more appropriate then 2020’s Spike Lee directed, American Utopia with David Byrne. 7. The Woman Who Ran- Hong Sang-soo I just love his lo-fi everyday personal filmmaking, complete with his crappy pans and low tech auto zooms. His films often feature his ex-wife as lead actress for films revolving around eating and drinking in everyday social situations that blur reality. Humility in the guise of narcissism… 8. Puparia- Shingo Tamagawa So nice not seeing CG in an anime… a short art film reminiscent of Mamoru Oishii’s classic, “Angel’s Egg”. 9. Bacurau- Kelber Mendonça Filho What felt like an art film, became a weirdly satisfying violent genre western. 10. Wild Goose Lake - Diao Yinan With cyberpunk films, photography and games being all the rage…this forgoes the CG and high budgets…in favor of actual punk. All real locations in China where with its rapid building that outstrips destruction IS cyberpunk for what is a violent art film noir. City Hall - Frederick Wiseman At age 90 great to still see Wiseman documentaries as High School and Titicut Follies was a long time ago. 4 1/2 hours on what local level politics actually is needed coming off the most dysfunctional administration in our lifetime. Tenet - Christopher Nolan Just loved the surrealism of it, to find similar motifs you’d have to go back the silent films of Cocteau or even more obscure the Polish surrealist films of the Themerson brothers. Always liked the idea of challenging the temporal my short film Pieces I shot in reverse mine to heighten the surreal of everyday… Nolan to heighten the genre itself. First action film that left me not asking what will happen next but what is happening now and not only that but a blockbuster that is not a remake or a franchise with heavy reliance on CG. Though like Hollywood irritating the black dude couldn’t get the white female lead lol. I’m Thinking of Ending Things- Charlie Kaufman He really went in on absurdity yet maintained a circular symbolic rationale.
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tabellae-rex-in-sui · 2 years ago
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Hmm lol no offense but isn’t sade one of the most prolific rapists in French history
Like most of my answers, I got a bit carried away. So I hope you wanted a genuine answer.
Short answer: no. Far from it, like very far from it. I mean “most prolific rapist in French history”?? That title definitely goes to some crusades asshole. Sade was a random aristocrat with no real power for the entire second half of his life. I doubt he breaks the top 500. You might be confusing his actual actions with his books. His books are very gruesome and brutal. Sade himself rarely even went out; he never got close to what’s in his books. That’s a common misconception.
That being said, Sade was not a good person. He was a shit person. Don’t know why you put “no offense” in your question like, there’s no offense taken lol. Call him out, you should. He was awful. Coerced, abused, manipulated, gaslighted, he did it all. The thing is, it wasn’t just him. And that’s an important thing to acknowledge. Sade didn’t invent libertinism, didn’t invent sadism. Being a pre-revolutionary aristocrat, you can get away with a lot. Everything Sade did was done by many others and done to worse, less, and equal extremes. It was a terribly corrupt system. Women, children, the working class (specifically sex workers) were constantly abused. Just look up Libertinism; it wasn’t unpopular among aristocrats and it really excuses any type of abuse, usually sexual (I know there have been modern self-identified Libertines, I don’t know if the modern interpretation is amended in any way so don’t ask me). Even outside of Libertine circles, aristocrats sexually abused/harassed their servants. Servants were not considered people or worthy of certain levels of respect. One example that I think illustrates this well involves Émilie, the Marquise du Chátelet. She was an incredibly brilliant physicist but is unfortunately known more for being Voltaire’s long-term mistress. Voltaire’s valet, Longchamp, recorded an incident where she called him to refill her bathtub while she was still in it. She parted her legs so he could pour the hot water without burning her. Naturally, he was made uncomfortable and looked away as he poured. She scolded him and made him look. Nothing suggests that there was malicious intent on her part, but it’s telling that in a time when even married couples rarely had sex naked, she completely exposed herself to a male servant because at that time, in his position, he wasn’t a man, just a server. His sister even explained to him that Émilie did not regard domestics as human beings, therefore he shouldn’t be embarrassed. I like that anecdote because it shows the casual disregard for “the help” the aristocrats had, even aristocrats who didn’t have a reputation of abuse and even aristocratic women. Another example, which is on par with Sade’s crimes, was Casanova, known for being a womanizer. In his memoirs, he fondly recalls gang-raping a woman he kidnapped and sex with several minors including a 12-year-old he purchased and a 9-year-old he then passed on to a (also middle-aged) friend because he thought he’d enjoy her too. But he laughs these off as “pranks” or “games” and moves on. The same kind of shit Sade did, the same kind of shit Casanova and Sade’s friends and family did. Casanova preaches consent in his writing, completely (and terrifyingly) unaware that he’s a rapist. He shows no remorse because he genuinely sees nothing wrong with what he was doing. Why? Because it was 300 years ago and society sucked. People of the past will always be shit by modern standards of decency and morality. I say this as a woman of color, I would not want to meet or befriend any of the people I love to talk and joke about on this blog. But I can’t invalidate or write off everyone in history because they’re from a time that condoned despicable behavior. I mean grown-ass men married teenagers. Sure people raised their eyebrows, but it wasn’t illegal. Look at how the law treated even Sade! Did they care about his victims? No. They slapped his wrist and that’s it, silence was bought, tracks covered. His long imprisonments pre-revolution were with Lettre de Cachets under the order of his mother-in-law. She had him jailed to avoid further scandal. No trial, nothing. It wasn’t because he was dangerous or as for the sake of his victims, it was just to save face. The one time he did go to trial, he was found innocent (he was not), because of course he was, he was an aristocrat in pre-frev France. The most serious punishment he was given was being executed in effigy. Again, not for anything related to rape, it was for consensual sodomy with an adult man and accidental poisoning. After the Revolution, he was jailed for his writing, again not for rape. He was a rapist, but so was a good chunk of his social class. I mean both Sade and Casanova were sexually mistreated as children, but neither of them saw it as wrong; they look back on it with almost nostalgia. Sexual consent was not regarded as the same as it is today. Émilie was married off as a teen to a grown man but she was good friends with her husband and had no ill will towards her parents. It was the 18th century, what do you expect? Rape culture is real and it was a lot worse 300 years ago.
Sade’s a fascinating character in history. He recorded so many of his wild thoughts and lived through such a turbulent time, his life is incredible. Just look him up on Jstor and you’ll find people arguing that he set the foundations for communism and someone else saying he set the foundations for fascism. One person says he was a feminist while someone else says he was a misogynist. He’s been hated since his death until suddenly the surrealists of the 20th century hailed him a hero and “The Divine Marquis”. His writing discusses seemingly modern topics such as queer theory, abortion, and sexology well before they entered public/mainstream consciousness. But then he goes on a tangent about how it’s fun to eat shit. What even is everything he writes? Who knows. Why is he the way he is? We can only speculate. Historians, artists, psychologists have been fascinated by him for centuries. I don’t have any reason why I like to read about him besides the same reason everyone else has, it’s just that he’s a mystery of a person and sometimes I cannot believe he actually existed. He’s one of those people that are just super interesting, and I think as long as you acknowledge his criminality within the proper context, you’re good. That goes for all historical figures.
I should mention I guess that I obviously don’t condone the terrible things done by the long-dead people I post about?? Fritz was a literal warlord. Voltaire would call me a South American savage to my face. I can’t exactly have high standards when reading about old white men.
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milesh23 · 2 years ago
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Artist Book/Zine
 Artist Book
Artist book is a medium in which artist's using the form and function of book as inspiration and a way of self-expression. Artist's style and creative approach makes it outstanding and unique.
In the artist's book illustrations and text are correlated in a special way: on the one hand, the text plays an important role (including-as motivation for artists), on the other-graphic sheets constitute a parallel text, free from the task of direct illustration of literary material. 
    At the beginning of the XX century, futurists, Dadaists and Surrealists sought to erase the boundaries between text and graphics. Russian poet Sergei Tretyakov, for example, described the effect that futuristic books produced on the public: "People gasp: are these poems? No, it's not poetry. These are drawings; they are dominated by graphics, but the graphics are alphabetic, carrying with them as an accompaniment a sense of sounds and growths of associations associated with speech sounds." 
Russian Futurism rejected conventional art methods, proposing a new visual and linguistic vocabulary for modern experience. They were general symbols of modernity, but also of a new Russia, leaping out of an agrarian past into an industrial and political revolution.
Although they strongly rejected the past, Russian Futurists celebrated traditional Russian heritage, including aspects of folk life and religion. They drew from a wide range of Russian "primitive" art forms - religious icons and woodcuts, ancient pagan sculpture, folk art and costumes - that they translated into increasingly pure colour and abstract forms. Futurist books were willfully made with cheap materials, and appeared purposely unrefined, as if they were products of wild and primitive behavior. 
Tango with Cows
Tango with Cows takes its title from a book and poem by the Russian avant-garde poet Vasily Kamensky, with additional illustrations by the brothers David and Vladimir Burliuk.
Tango with Cows, shown at right, offers a tour of Moscow's urban entertainment. In his "ferro-concrete" (reinforced concrete) poems, Vasily Kamensky replaced grammar and syntax with a spatial arrangement of words that celebrates concrete as a dynamic force in the invention of the modern city. The artists discarded customary book materials and printed Tango on cheap wallpaper as a parody of urban bourgeois taste. 
By matching the urban tango—an erotic Argentine dance that arrived in Russia in 1913 via Paris—with the cows of rural Russia, Kamensky captured the tension poets and artists felt between the recovery of a rural past and the allure of an urban present in creating their art of the future.
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La Ville
The City (France: La Ville: cent bois gravés) is a 1925 wordless novel by Flemish artist Frans Masereel (1889-1972). In 100 monochrome woodcut prints, Masereel looks at many sides of life in a big unnamed city between the wars. He is known especially for his woodcuts.
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The wordless novel has its origin in the German Expressionist movement of the early 20th century. Socialist themes of struggle against Capitalism are very common.
Frans Masereel appropriated the awkward aesthetic of mediaeval woodcuts to express their anguish and revolutionary political ideas and used simple, traditional iconography. 
Beginning in 1916 Masereel began to produce books of woodcuts and caricatures, first in Geneva, where he illustrated works by a wide range of authors, including Walt Whitman, Stefan Zweig, and Maurice Maeterlinck, and from 1922 until 1940 in Paris, where La Ville and other wordless novels were created. 
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 My Symbols
 My Symbols is a 2010 artist book by Judy Holding. 
Judy Holding is a Melbourne based artist who has been practicing for over thirty years. In 1977, she completed her Diploma of Fine Art at Monash University and since then has exhibited extensively in solo and group exhibitions across Australia. Judy’s practice is underpinned by regular travel and research trips to the Northern Territory as well as numerous residencies overseas including Italy, Ireland, Nepal and India. 
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Watercolour, silkscreen, linocut and collage on paper
Her love for Australian landscape is the inspiration behind her beautiful works on paper and sculptures. 
Zine
Zine is a small, self-published and distributed magazine rising from the punk, feminist and activist movements of the 1980s. Zines are often used to share personal and political views and are easy to read and cheap to buy.
While the zines of the past have been shaped by the topping themes of sci-fi, punk music, and the "riot grrrl movement", there have always been zines on a variety of subjects. 
Memoranda
Raffi Kalenderian (1981, born and living in Los Angeles) graduated in 2004 with a BFA from the University of California in Los Angeles. 
In Kalenderian's works there are no horizons and no perspective. The artist reveals his world directly to us, showing us his friends, as if he had no secrets. 
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His friends often seem melancholic while their environment is very colourful. Colourful details of clothes, materials or furniture seem to be striving to attract the spectator’s attention and distract from the figures. 
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None of the figures look directly at the viewer, but all of them seem to be in contact with us. We are the witnesses of their existence.
Memoranda, the title of the book, can be likening portraiture to notes and memories kept for history, but not too specific to take away from someone's own unique experience. 
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lonely-corvid · 2 years ago
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Bastille Day!!
In honor of today being Bastille Day, thought I’d post some descriptions/faceclaims of the Paris expatriate characters I love. The dream is to one day write a TV show about them, but for now I just write little snapshots. Anyway
Melvin Cohen
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29, he/him. Plays bass for the Paris Opera Ballet pit orchestra, used to be a dancer but can’t get hired anymore due to severe scarring on his legs/torso from the war. He was a soldier who was trusted with a list of names of spies, and was captured and tortured for information. Because of this he has hydrophobia (waterboarding) and can’t shower unless he’s got someone to talk to while he’s doing it. Usually it’s Rose. His parents and sister live in Brooklyn. He lives with Rose and Gil, until he eventually moves from Paris to Berlin with Ben, and then back to New York alone as World War Two begins (the guy’s Big Jewish). Absolutely feral most of the time, usually standing on something people aren’t supposed to stand on. Very in love with Ben.
Ben Van Luren
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35, he/him. A jazz pianist and a (terrible) stand-up comedian. Was a doctor in the war and is constantly considering going back to school to become a psychiatrist, but has neither the money nor the mental health to do so. He was less affected by the war than Mel, Gil, and Felicity; he has a lot of survivors guilt, though. Quiet and very introverted; he grew up in a series of boarding schools on the east coast and now he lives alone a few blocks from Harry. His parents died while he was in med school, but he’s close with his extended family and usually goes home to his aunt’s house in Connecticut for holidays. Stays in Berlin when Mel moves to help a nazi resistance group- see survivors guilt. Very in love with Melvin.
Gilbert McCallister
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34, he/him. An author who wrote a pretty successful novel a year before he moved to Paris, and is trying to write a second one under pressure from his publisher/readers. Was a part of the Harlem Renaissance for a hot minute, but hates America so much that he left. He lives with Melvin and Rose until his second suicide attempt, after which everyone decides it’d be best for him to move in with Harry and Olivia so he can be under better supervision and have better support. Olivia is his surrogate mom- his real mom dies while he’s fighting on the western front. Usually pretty stoic, but when he opens up he’s the funniest one in the group.
Harry King
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68, he/him. Used his old money to move from Edinburgh to Paris after the war, because he saw the art scene expanding and wanted to start collecting/getting his poetry published. He owns a small mansion that everyone hangs out at in their free time- Ben concerted the attic into a dance studio for Melvin. Worked as a journalist and wrote editorials about the war, but due to his agoraphobia never went to the front. He doesn’t leave his house now, but ironically is one of the most renowned naturalist poets in the community.
Olivia Brodeur
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70, she/her. Officially Harry’s housekeeper, but she also works as his publisher (and eventually Rose’s too), and ends up being a pseudo- mom and/or therapist to the band of bastards- which is what she calls them- that hang out at her house. Not an artist by any stretch, but an amazing critic, editor, and publisher. The only character with any common sense. Speaks primarily French as she was born and raised in Paris and hasn’t left except for a few trips to Germany to visit family (before the war), but her english gets better as she tries to communicate with the bastards.
Rose Cranor
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21, she/her. Moved to Paris to be a historian specializing in the French Revolution, but eventually becomes a poet. She still keeps a research assistant job to pay the rent, though. Wasn’t involved in the war at all, mostly because her parents were extremely protective until they found out she’s gay and cut her off. Lives with Melvin and Gil until both of them move out; then she moves into a hotel closer to Felicity. She’s a little too willing to help her friends, and as a result most of them become pretty dependent on her- Mel wakes her up whenever his nightmares get too bad, she’s usually the one who talks Gil down from the edge, etc. For the most part she doesn’t mind, but she does snap eventually and tells her roommates to figure their shit out. Loves Felicity a lot.
Felicity Jefferson
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23, she/her. A painter who ends up as one of the big names in the surrealist movement. She was a nurse for the British army on the western front, and is pretty traumatized from it. Her family lives in London, and she lives off a monthly allowance from them; her parents are big patrons of the arts in England, so they love to support her. Lives alone in a studio on Montmartre, and she’s famous within the art community for the parties she hosts there. She’s the funniest, after Gil, and also the most assertive, but she’s very quiet, and still adheres to the manners she learned in English boarding school. Likes Rose but sees it as much more casual than Rose does.
La Tempete (the thunderstorm)
A bar on the outskirts of Paris where everyone meets for the first time, and continues to gather at for the rest of their time in the city. They meet on Bastille Day 1922- Ben has a gig playing piano, Rose is there because it was a significant location for the uprising she’s studying (think ABC cafe), Olivia is there to restock Harry’s wine cellar, and Gil, Melvin, and Felicity are there because the Bastille Day fireworks are bad for World War One veterans. They meet and Olivia, deciding that the bastards would like Harry, invites them over for dinner the following night. There, Rose, Gil, and Melvin discover that they’re all looking for a place to stay, and resolve to start looking for apartments together. The bar closes a few years after that night; it’s tradition for them to meet there every Bastille Day, and when they get there and it’s boarded up, they end up breaking in.
les meilleurs jours (the better days, according to google translate)
Eventually everyone splits off- Mel and Ben move to Berlin, and then to Brooklyn, Gil joins the International Brigades and moves to England and then fights in Spain, and Rose moves to California to try and get into the movie business after she and Felicity break it off. The thing that brings everyone back in 1939 is Felicity and Olivia’s latest idea: turning Harry’s house into an artists commune of sorts. There’s a lot of unused bedrooms, and the dance studio in the attic, and the parlor has already been functioning as an art studio/saloon, and Harry is all for having other artists in his house. There’s a party to celebrate the opening, and everyone shows up. Rose and Gil both decide to move back to Paris and rent rooms. When France surrenders to Germany in World War Two, les meilleurs jours becomes a meeting place for resistance groups, and also publishes and distributed several pamphlets. They produce more underground publications in the 1968 student revolutions, as well, although they aren’t as good since Olivia isn’t around to serve as editor. It stays open until the late 1970s, when Felicity has to close it due to structural problems.
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zainabk-grad505 · 3 months ago
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Week 3: Art and Design Mood Boards
FIVE 20TH CENTURY ART MOVEMENTS
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Mexican Muralism (Mexico, 1920s-) After the Mexican Revolution, Mexico had a period of reform to unify the country under a new government. Muralism was a governmental project that allowed artists to promote their own political ideas and beliefs to wider society. Artists painted large artworks onto walls in public settings, and subject matter included nature and people.
Surrealism (France, 1910s-) Surrealism is an art movement that is characterised by depictions of illogical scenes that contradicted reality. This movement was officially established in the 1920s, and spread around the world through different practices. Frida Kahlo is an example of a surrealist artist, as she depicted unnerving and surreal elements in her works. 
Art Deco (France, 1900s-) Art Deco is a visual style that originated in France pre World War I. It is characterised by geometric shapes, straight and smooth lines, vivid colours, and sleekness. This style of art is seemingly flexible, as many artists have also combined it with the genres of Realism and Abstraction in painting. 
Cubism (France, 1900s-) Cubism is an art movement that revolutionized European visual arts and media. This style consists of broken up objects that are reassembled and abstracted. Objects are also depicted from multiple viewpoints to represent subject matter. A prominent artist from this movement is pioneer Pablo Picasso, best known for his portraits.
Abstract Expressionism (USA, 1940s-) Abstract Expressionism is a post-WWII movement that developed in the USA. It is a predecessor of Surrealism, as it is spontaneous and automatic. It had a reputation of being ‘rebellious’ against styles that prioritised rigid form and figure, such as Futurism, Bauhaus, and Cubism. 
FIVE 20TH CENTURY DESIGN MOVEMENTS
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Art Deco (France, 1900s-) As mentioned previously, Art Deco was successfully incorporated into painting, but also influenced design practices. In graphic design, common characteristics were simple but dynamic images, vivid colours and colour blocking, and straight lines and geometric shapes. These elements are commonly seen to this day, as this movement was extremely influential. 
Dadaism (Switzerland, 1910s-1920s) Dadaism was a European art movement that built its foundation on anti-war and anti-capitalist politics, especially after WWI. This design style focused on practices such as collaging, sound poetry, and cut up writing. Influenced by Cubism, this style utilised materials such as photographs, tickets, maps, etc. to creates collages and photomontages that held significant political meaning.
Art Nouveau (UK, 1890s-) As this movement developed during the era of new printing and colour lithography (oil and water printing) technology, graphic design flourished, and posters/magazine covers started being mass produced. The Art Nouveau style is influenced by nature and organic shapes and lines, as well as earthy colour schemes. 
Bauhaus (Germany, 1910s-) The Bauhaus movement is fairly simple and associated with primary colours, straight lines, white space, and the use of circles, triangles, and squares. The popular typeface ‘Universal’ was also developed by Herbert Bayer with the ideals of functionality and accessibility. This design movement is still widely used today, as it is simple, making it easy to convey information. 
Futurism (Italy, 1900s-) Futurism is an art and design movement that emphasised technology, speed, and youthfulness, as per the name. Subject matter typically included industrial elements such as cars, cityscapes, and airplanes, symbolising the advancement to modernism. In graphic design, common characterstics were vivid colours, sans serif type, and strong geometric shapes with a flexible use of line. This movement was also heavily stylised through the use of these elements. 
SOURCES ↓
(1) Art Movements
Mexican muralism. (2022, March 25). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_muralism
Anna Purna Kambhampaty. (2020, February 20). Mexican Muralists Changed the Course of 20th-Century American Art. A New Exhibit Explores Their Influence. Time. https://time.com/5786068/whitney-museum-mexican-muralists/
Art Deco. (2022, March 18). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco
Surrealism. (2022, April 4). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020). Abstract Expressionism. Britannica. https://www. britannica.com/art/Abstract-Expressionism
Cubism. (2022, April 9). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cubism
Abstract Expressionism. (2022, April 3). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_expressionism
(2)  Design Movements
Maya Lekach. (2015). Know your design history: the Bauhaus movement. 99designs. https://99designs.com/blog/design-history-movements/know-your-design-history-the-bauhaus-movement/
Madeleine Morley. (2019, December 2). Examples of Bauhaus Graphic Design that Shaped the Movement. AIGA Eye on Design. https://eyeondesign.aiga.org/5-examples-of-bauhaus-graphic-design-that-shaped-the-movement/
Dada. (2022, April 11). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dada
Marc Schenker. (2021, September 2). Italian Futurism Design: History and Examples. Creative Market. https://creativemarket.com/blog/italian-futurism-design
Art Nouveau. (2022, March 19). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Nouveau
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conorchristopher · 7 months ago
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Pieta (Revolution by Night)
By: Max Ernst
Date: 1923; Paris, France
Style: Surrealism
Period: First French period
Genre: symbolic painting
Media: oil, canvas
Location: Tate Modern, London, UK
Dimensions: 116.2 x 88.9 cm
Pietà or Revolution by Night is a painting by German surrealist and Dadaist Max Ernst. Since 1981 it has been part of the collection of the Tate Gallery in London. The painting is interpreted as symbolic of the turbulent relationship between the artist and his father, as an amateur painter and staunch Catholic. Wikipedia
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Surrealism Research
“A twentieth-century literary, philosophical and artistic movement that explored the workings of the mind, championing the irrational, the poetic and the revolutionary”
Surrealism was a movement which began after World War 1, by a group of people who focused on the world of dreams in order to create a new reality that was surreal. Prior to the war, France was full of proper, rational mannered and well-behaved people who bought mild, decorative art. World War 1 changed everything as it made people look for a different way to live as they questioned their society.
André Breton
Andre Breton was a 19 year old poet when WW1 began, he was sent to war to be a medic for 4 years. After the war, he was scarred for life due to the traumatic experiences he had witnessed, just like many other soldiers who returned from war. Breton and his friends believed that if the traditional, rational approach to life ended with the war, maybe it was time to try something different, which led to them rebelling against all authorities, including the government and church. 
Dada
Breton and his friends joined a group called Dada, who created art to be used as political statements as they wanted a revolution. This type of art was extremely different from what people were used to as they wanted to destroy the traditional values in art and to create a new type of art to replace it with. Dada became an art movement which was a negative reaction towards the horrors of war, however, Breton did not find or achieve a revolution through Dada.
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Left: “Kleine Dada Soiree” by Theo van Doesburg & Kurt Schitters, 1922.  Right: "Anna Blume" by Paul Steegemann Hanover, 1919.
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“Da-Dandy” by Hannah Höch, 1919, paper collage.
Surrealism
Andre Breton believed that when people ignore or surpress their irrational thoughts they become imbalanced which creates an imbalanced society which leads to disasters like war. Breton wanted to access peoples subconscious minds to create more balance, as a result he and a group of writers who named themselves “The Surrealists” wrote and published a book in 1924 called “The Manifesto of Surrealism”.
The surrealists rejected societies demand for everything to make sense, instead the focused on the things that didn't make sense. They did everything together as a group and developed many new techniques however, they were really fond of automatism. This is where they wrote or drew everything that came into their minds, no matter what it was. The surrealist ideas began to spread throughout Europe with painters joining them in creating surreal art. Surrealists in all categories use a lot of the same elements in their work, elements most used are  dislocation, transformation and juxtaposition.
Surrealist art does not follow a particular style or look, it's the thinking behind the art which makes it surrealism. It can be pretty or it can be shocking and disgusting, as long as it originates from the unconscious mind.
The most well known surrealist artists include:
Salvador Dali
Max Ernst
Yves Tanguy
Man Ray
Andre Mason
Rene Magritte 
Jean Arp
Luis Bunuel
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Above: The Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dali, 1931.
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Above:
Max Ernst, Ubu Imperator, 1923.
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Above: Giorgio de Chirico, The Song of Love, 1914.
Sources: 
https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/s/surrealism
https://www.britannica.com/art/Surrealism
https://blog.artsper.com/en/a-closer-look/10-surrealist-paintings-you-should-know/
https://www.widewalls.ch/magazine/art-for-arts-sake 
https://youtu.be/rp2PRA0qaD4 
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Initial Research - Illusion Brief
21.01.2021
Surrealism
Began in literature in 1924 through the poet Andre Breton. The key influence of surrealists was Freud. Similar to the work of Dada it was a movement of a revolution and shaking up the norm creating a love for the absurd. Salvador Dali depicted this concept by looking into a dream world and those of the subconscious. The surrealists embraced the work which was deemed as random. The element of chance was key to surreal artists of its time.
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Originating in Paris, France, it quickly moved around the world and by 1936 the international surrealist exhibition was held in London, UK. Other key hotspots of the movement were in Belgium and Czechoslovakia. 
Toyen was from Czechoslovakia and explored gender roles dressing in men's clothing. The work “The Message of the Forrest” with the blue bird depicts the force to which nature has over humanity. 
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After the Second World War, surrealists moved towards Mexico and America to create a new kind of expression. Artists such as Jackson Pollock were inspired by the surrealists approach to the idea that art should come from the unconscious mind. 
Francesca Woodman a keen photographer showed strong elements of surrealism in her own work. Using a mirror and other objects within her photography deemed to be inspired by surrealists. 
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The Uncanny 
Sigmund Freud wrote his paper on ‘
The Uncanny
’ (Das Unheimliche). His theory was rooted in everyday experiences and the aesthetics of popular culture, related to what is frightening, repulsive and distressing.
The paper tackles the horrific concepts of inanimate figures coming to life, severed limbs, ghosts, the image of the double figure (doppelgaengers) and lends itself to art, literature and cinema.
Freud’s essay is written in two parts. The first part explores the etymology of the words ‘heimlich’ and ‘unheimlich’ (or ‘homely’ and ‘unhomely’, as it directly translates into English), their uses in the German dictionary and how these words are used in other languages. This must have been an unimaginable challenge for the translator!
In the second part, Freud begins to tackle people, things, self-expressions, experiences and situations that best represent the uncanny feeling.
Freud’s paradigm example is the short story of E.T.A. Hoffmann’s ‘The Sandman’, a tale that parents would tell their children to encourage them to go to sleep. The story goes that the child must be asleep for the Sandman to put sand in the child’s eyes – if they are not asleep, the Sandman will take out their eyes. The protagonist is a boy named Nathaniel whose fate eventually does fall to the Sandman, losing not only his sight but his sanity, then his life. Freud asserts that the removal of the eyes alludes to an infantile fear of castration, but the castration complex is masked by a fear of losing a different sensitive organ: the eyes. This same theme is present in the tragedy of Oedipus.
“Uncanny is in reality nothing new or alien, but something which is familiar and old-established in the mind and which has become alienated from it only through the process of repression - ”SIGMUND FREUD
The Uncanny in Art Examples:
Waxwork dolls, automata, doubles, ghosts, mirrors, the home and its secrets, madness and severed limbs are mentioned throughout The Uncanny, influencing painters and sculptors to explore these themes and blur the boundaries between animate and inanimate, human and non-human, life and death.
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Examples in the Photography World
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