3 tips from an advanced foreign languages student and tutor
Immersion is key - You need to do things like listen to music in your target language, watch shows and movies in it, read books or fanfics in it if you can. And immersion goes beyond just that: try to use apps/social media to connect with natives. A lot of language learners aren't fortunate enough to spend vacation time in a country that speaks their target language, but surrounding yourself with the communication of natives in your TL absolutely helps you learn. In your regular fandoms for example, become mutuals with the fans who are natives in your TL and maybe try bonding over that! The passive learning that comes with just listening and reading, even if you can't translate line for line, absolutely helps with language proficiency.
Don't learn in a bubble - Listen, it's hard to learn new words and phrases if they're just sitting pretty on the page. It doesn't matter how aesthetic your vocab lists are- you need to use the new words and phrases you collect. Write a sentence using that new word you learnt and jotted down, so you have a way to remember the word used in an appropriate context. It becomes much easier to learn and remember vocabulary by by understanding their meaning and relating them to an actual situation. For visual learners, draw a doodle of the word! For aural learners, try saying it out loud on a recording or have a native/online dictionary say the word for you.
Literature/Culture is important - You need to do research and explore the culture/society of the countries/places that use your target language. Like, I don't mean traveling, but just, in English, research the art and writing and philosophy that were born in your target language. Language is inherently tied to culture/specific ethnic groups because they form the basis for how the language has evolved and is used. A decent understanding and big interest in the art and music and philosophy and the politics of persons from your TL's countries/regions goes a long way in your understanding of how to use the language, especially in formal ways.
Ciao! Spero stiate bene. Ho una domanda sulla pronuncia della lettera "s": questa cambia a seconda della posizione della "s" in una determinata parola? Cioè, mi sembra sempre di sentire che la "s" all'inizio suona più soft (?) mentre che quando va in mezzo suona un po' più vibrata. Non so se si capisce quello che intendo dire, scusate e grazie!
Ciao! Sto bene, grazie, e tu? Ti rispondo in inglese, così anche chi non ha una grande conoscenza dell'italiano può capire qualcosa in più.
You're not wrong, there are in fact (at least) two different ways to pronounce the letter "S" in Italian. In one of the, the S is called sorda (deaf), and you can hear it in the word "sole" (sun) and it's a bit more hard (the sound is ‹s›), while in the other, it is called sonora (voiced, vibrating -> if you put your hand on your neck when you pronounce it, you can hear your vocal cords vibrating. It's almost like a "szz" sound or ‹ʃ›) and you can hear it in the word "sbaglio" (mistake). This last one is a sweeter "S", let's say. So it's not just the position of the "S" changing its pronunciation, but there's more.
How to pronounce the letter "S"
To be honest, even us Italians have problems with the correct pronunciation of these two "S". Sometimes, if you hear an "S" sorda whistling a little too much, it's because the position of the tongue isn't perfect: the tip of your tongue should hit the lower part of your mouth, just below your teeth, while the part right before the tip, should be close to the palate. If the tip of the tongue isn't very low, the "S" starts whistling a little too much.
We do also have problems in pronouncing the words with the correct type of "S": this happens because most of us haven't been taught in school the proper prounciations, and we don't know about the rules; we just go with the pronunciation that we hear while growing up, and it changes according on the Italian area/region we live in. This happens because of Regional Languages having a huge influence on our Italian pronunciation, but also because Italian, that originated from Tuscan (and from the old Latin, that used only the "S" sorda), started spreading mostly through written words: this way, people from other regions weren't really sure about how to pronounce those words, and just went with whatever way sounded most right to them (or they were more used to).
Anyway, let's see a few rules about the correct pronunciations of this letter. I'll add an audio/video too, hopefully it can help you better (had to split in two bc I talk too much, sorry - links at the end).
When to pronounce the S as "SORDA" ‹s›
1) If it's followed by a conosonant "sorda": C, F, P, Q, T.
e.g. scuola, sfornare, esperimento, squalo, storia...
2) If it's at the beginning of a word and followed by a vowel.
e.g. salto, serpente, simpatico, sordo, suono...
3) If it follows another consonant.
e.g. orso, senso, falso...
4) If you have a double "S".
e.g. passo, rosso, messa, missile, assurdo...
5) If the "S" is at the end of a word.
e.g. gas, rebus, virus...
When to pronounce the S as "SONORA" ‹ʃ›
1) If it's followed by a consonant "sonora": B, D, G, L, M, N, R, V.
e.g. sbatto, sdentato, sgombero, dislessia, smalto, bisnonno, Srebrenica, sveglia...
2) If the "S" is between two vowels.
e.g. asino, poesia, esame...
There are exceptions to this, though:
-> words' couples each of whom has a different meaning/refers to something specific; and according on this, the pronounce of the "S" changes.
e.g. Brindisi (city, sorda), brindisi (cheer, sonora); fuso (object, sorda), fuso (past participle of fondere, sonora)...
-> the words COSA and CASA.
They can be pronounced both with the "S" sonora or "sorda". The most correct pronunciation is with the "S" sorda (because it was the original Latin's pronunciation), but the most common one nowadays is with the "sonora" one.
-> if you have a word that is actually made of two words and the "S" is at the beginning of the second word (still between two vowels).
e.g. girasole (gira+sole); asintomatico/a (a+sintomatico/a); asimmetrico / asimmetria; disegno / disegnato (disegnati, disegnata, disegnate) / disegnare: this last words' group is pronounced with the "S" sonora in many regions (I do that too cause habits yk, lol), but it's actually a wrong pronunciation.
Conclusion and suggestions
The letter "S" was born with a sorda pronunciation (with little to none exceptions) in old Latin but it evolved, as seen, also in the sonora pronunciation in the whole country (and in Europe too). Let's not forget that it is also part of the groups of letters "sci/sce" (read: ‹š›) as can be heard also in other European languages (it can be found in other forms according on the specific language: sch, sh...).
Aside from these, as stated in the beginning of this post, there are also Regional Languages variations that have a specific influence on the pronunciation of the S, not just as in the difference between sorda and sonora: think about Emilia Romagna's famous "S" called salata (salty) and more similar to a ‹š› sound.
To be taken into consideration is also the so called "S" blesa or zeppola (lisp, sound as ‹th, dh›), which is a pronunciation's problem typical for this letter (but it can be overcome through a specific work, if one feels the need to). Not to forget that in some Regions, the "S" occasionally takes on a pronunciation that is halfway betwen the sorda and the sonora ones (as seen for "casa" and "cosa" in particular).
If you feel like your pronunciation isn't always on point, don't worry: as I said, we too might not always use the correct "S". The most important thing is that you know the general pronunciation of the word you want to say: this is what we need the most to understand you. We really don't mind much about single letters' pronunciations (also because we don't even know them ourselves!).
So, especially if you are a beginner, focus on learning Italian words and translations first. Later on, you can find a way to learn this letter's pronunciations too, if you feel so. And to do that, I can suggest you to practice (find words and check them with the rules listed here) and listen to actors' talking: most of the times (except when they speak regional languages like in Montalbano, to say one) you can generally hear the perfect Italian pronunciation, as they are few of the ones who have to go to a pronunciation school before starting to act.
This way, you'll be even better than an Italian in no time (or at least some of them. Well, better than me for sure!).
Part 1 https://youtu.be/2JnJL7wJMqc
Part 2 https://youtu.be/rTNbrVB0eDw
I love symmetry. And one of the things I like about Hindi, is the various ways repetition and reduplication are used to convey all sorts of nuances. Perhaps not purely a reduplication, but an interesting structure none the less is the way how "some or another" is said in Hindi.
कहीं न कहीं - some place or another
कहीं is formed from कहाँ, where, and the exclusive or emphatic particle ही, and means somewhere.
हर साल कहीं न कहीं लोग घूमने का प्लान जरूर बनाते हैं।
Every year people surely make plans to travel to one place or another.
कुछ न कुछ - something or another
वो हमेशा बेचैन महसूस करते हैं क्योंकि वो कुछ न कुछ करते रहना चाहते हैं।
They always feel restless because they keep on wanting to do one thing or another.
Not to be confused with the reduplication कुछ-कुछ, something.
कोई न कोई - some or another, someone or another
हर दर्द का कोई न कोई कारण ज़रूर होता है।
There is certainly some or another reason for every pain.
हर एक घर में कोई न कोई व्यक्ति खांसी या बुखार से पीड़ित हुआ।
One or another person in every house was suffering from cough or fever.
It also inflects in the oblique:
उन्होंने मरीज़ों की किसी न किसी तरह से मदद की।
They helped the patients in one way or another.
वह हमेशा मोबाइल में किसी न किसी से बात करती रहती थी।
She always kept talking on the phone with some or another person.
If you notice any mistakes, please tell me. I use Google search a lot of times to come up with example sentences, but obviously there can be कोई न कोई hit and miss in the mix.
Words To Describe Facial Expressions - @introvrt-unicorn
The Smut Writer's Dictionary - @maybeeatspaghetti
Synonyms For 'Said' - @simping4fics
Writer's Vocabulary List: Words that Sound Beautiful - @writing-is-my-anchor
26 Words To Use In Replacement Of Very - @cjsworld55
Tips To Writing Body Language - @iansfreckles
Writing LGBTQ+ Characters
6 Pitfalls To Avoid When Writing LGBTQ+ Characters
How To Write Better LGBTQ+ Characters
How To Make a Fictional LGBTQ+ Character
Beyond the Closet: Writing Gay Characters
How To Write Gay Characters Into Your Story
How To Write A (Great!) Sex Scene
9 Tips To Writing Steamy Scenes
How To Write Erotica - And a Damn Fine Sex Scene
This online resource has tons of resources for lots of different languages, and it is totally free!
There are lots of lessons catered to different levels which tailor vocab practice as well as listening and reading comprehension. I would say that the vocabulary and scenarios are generally more geared up towards security/defence and diplomacy, so if you are studying international relations or something geared towards the international sphere, this may be particularly interesting!
Then you can select different types of activities, which you can download onto your computer as MP3s and PDFs. The activities are categorised based on what skill they train. There are reading and vocab activities that help build up knowledge. Although the topics are pretty specific, they are really useful for getting vocab practice in areas that you are not so familiar with!
The activities are diverse and varied, with explanations for answers that were not correct!
There is also a glossary for all the new words, which has an audio file to listen to the pronunciation by a native speaker. This is particularly useful for self study, especially when contact with native speakers is less frequent.
All in all I really rate the website, the resources are a really great compliment to language studies, and although they are kind of 'old school' in their approach, they seem really effective!
Ни с того, ни с сего - out of the blue, all of a sudden
Ни с того, ни с сего студенты на задней парте засмеялись, и в аудитории запахло сладким дымом. Out of the blue, the students in the back row laughed, and the smell of sweet smoke wafted through the classroom.
How do you find a balance between “show, don’t tell” and “readers might not catch/understand this subtle concept or showing it would be too convoluted or more open to interpretation than it needs to be”? It doesn’t help that everyone encourages more showing even if it swallowing little details that are supposed to stand out. Basically, I feel like I overthink my showing as being too tell-y even when it already has several layers of meaning and is already too dense for average readers.
“Show don’t tell” resources & advice...
I think people often mistake the advice of “show don’t tell” as being in the interest of making one’s writing more literary; more “high art” than candid prose typically is. The advice is intended to help one recognize when their prose is becoming dull or unengaging to the reader. Showing is supposed to promote an organically flowing reading experience, rather than turn the writing into a flowery, pretentious, and unintelligible mess. Finding a satisfying way to deliver information in the text that isn’t “I felt” or “I thought” is important. It should never dilute the information. Clarity comes first, and then one can configure the sentence to add as much richness to the reader’s ability to immerse themselves as possible.
If the desire is to show that the character is sad, writing that “she looked down at the floor and wrapped her arms around her own waist” is not going to be any less indicative of that information than “she felt sad”. That is the point of this advice. It is not a way for one to convert information into a code that the reader must analyze in order to comprehend the basic idea of what the scenes are about. This isn’t 1597, and nobody is asking anyone to be Shakespeare.
Density of a piece of writing does not give it inherent worth. Ease of comprehension doesn’t always have to be the number one priority, but it should be a considerable factor when one accounts for their audience and their subject matter. If one is writing a young adult fantasy trilogy, the density of the writing should be adherent to the demographic’s ability to comprehend certain writing styles. “Show, don’t tell” applies to all writing, but different writers interpret it differently, often based on who they’re writing for. If the concept you’re trying to convey to the reader in a subtle manner is not coming across without blurting it out in the text, perhaps the problem isn’t the way you’re describing it, but the concept is weak in its current state.
Easily misinterpreted meanings or concepts are often not the victim of descriptive style, but being underdeveloped sub textually. No important concept can be described once within a dense text and expected to translate as intended into the reader’s understanding. If it’s important enough to the bones of your story and meaning, it shouldn’t rely on the manner of description to shine through. Sometimes the density of a text is a product of too much intentional symbolism or motif. It’s okay to allow some things to be meaningful purely in interpretation. It’s okay to acknowledge that you allowed something that obviously implies meaning to be prescribed its implications by the readers.
Here are some of my other resources on the topic that you may find helpful:
Resources For Describing Characters
Resources For Describing Emotion
All About Colors
A Writer’s Thesaurus
Showing VS Telling in First Person POV
Balancing Detail & Development
+ When To Use “Felt”
Showing Vs Telling
How To Better Your Vocabulary & Description
Describing emotion through action
Improving Flow In Writing
How To “Show Don’t Tell” More
Masterlist | WIP Blog
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Lots of people we know don’t care about the difference between “amount of” and “number of”—and they use the two interchangeably.
And while we concede that it doesn’t really matter in colloquial (i.e., spoken English), we would be remiss if we didn’t make it known that there are lots of other people who insist on the difference. Relevant to our interests, both the SAT and ACT (the two college-entrance exams in the United States) test this.
So, regardless of where you stand on this topic, here’s a brief explanation:
Let’s take a look at some example sentences:
Is it just me, or is the amount of air in this room decreasing?
The amount of work it takes to succeed can be daunting.
I can’t describe the amount of anger Luffy is feeling right now. 😡💢
The number of chairs in this tiny room is excessively high.
The number of white cars we sold this month was higher than we anticipated.
Increase the number of chips and snacks for the party; we can never have too much. 🍿🍫
A Comprehensive Guide to Sherlockian Abbreviations
It has come to my attention that some of you poor lads have no idea what us Sherlockians are referring to.
So, I’m going to do my best to explain! I’ll start simple, so don’t worry.
Johnlock: A fictional ship between John Watson and Sherlock Holmes. If you don’t know what this is, I don’t know if I can help you.
Moftiss: An amalgamation of the names Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat. Used to refer to the writers of BBC Sherlock in unison.
Sherlock Meta: A theory based on careful analysis of an episode/scene of BBC Sherlock. Fan-made.
TJLC: The Johnlock Conspiracy. It’s a giant conspiracy theory involving thousands of metas and such about people who are convinced that Johnlock is the endgame of the show.
TRMoJaS: This reminds me of John and Sherlock. Used by fans when stumbling upon a piece of media that triggers a recollection of the titular characters.
The Secret Episode: A supposedly filmed but unreleased episode of Series Four (?). Highly unreliable, likely a figment of hopeful imaginations.
The Purple Shirt of Sex: A purple button-up that is sinfully tight and parodied, as a result of the buttons always looking like they’re about to pop off. Seriously, go look up Ben in a purple shirt. You won’t regret it.
Tarmac Hell: A scene from His Last Vow in which Sherlock aborts a supposed love confession to John to instead tell him that ‘Sherlock is actually a girl’s name’. Hell for everyone involved.
ACD Canon: Events that happened in the Original Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publications of ‘The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes’. Often referenced in metas.
The Elephant in the Room: A supposed euphemism for Johnlock. Also a popular meta in which elephants are referenced throughout the series of BBC Sherlock.
Character Mirror: A minor or major character meant to simulate another character in actions to recall a certain scene for the audience. (Ex. Sholto/Sherlock, Irene/Sherlock, etc.)
[Sebastian] Moran: A sniper (originally from ACD Canon) referenced often in Sherlock metas, and Moriarty’s right hand man. John mirror. Not included in BBC Sherlock, but a popular part of fandom culture. Often depicted as in an unhealthy relationship with his boss, Jim Moriarty.
The Gay Bar Scene: A deleted scene from BBC Sherlock. John and Sherlock go to a gay bar for entirely heterosexual reasons.
Harriet ‘Harry’ [Watson]: An alcoholic, and also John’s elder sister. Referenced in BBC Sherlock. Often portrayed as being either divorced or married to her wife, Clara.
Victor [Trevor]: Sherlock’s childhood best friend who was murdered by his sister, Eurus. Revealed in TFP. Alternative name is ‘Redbeard’.
TPLoSH: Short for ‘The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes’. It’s a movie in which Sherlock Holmes is canonically gay. It’s often talked about by Moftiss.
Granada Holmes: A seven season Sherlock Holmes TV show starring Jeremy Brett. Many find that Holmes and Watson are essentially married in this series, so a few fans have made the fandom switch to this show.
Bisexual Lighting: In which John Watson is bathed in purple, pink, and blue lighting while in a bar. Questionable music plays.
The Gay Pilot: The original unaired pilot of BBC Sherlock. Called the ‘Gay Pilot’ for being incredibly homoerotic, and also for the set looking like a 70s p*rn shoot. Runtime was only an hour, and there were a few notable cast changes, including Angelo and Sally Donovan.
ASiP: A Study in Pink. Episode one, series one of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Jeff Hope and Moriarty.
TBB: The Blind Banker. Episode two, series one of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Shan and M.
TGG: The Great Game. Episode three, series one of BBC Sherlock. Villain is Jim Moriarty.
ASiB: A Scandal in Belgravia. Episode one, series two of BBC Sherlock. Villain is Irene Adler.
THoB: The Hounds of Baskerville. Episode two, series two of BBC Sherlock. Villain is Dr. Bob Frankland.
TRF: The Reichenbach Fall. Episode three, series two of BBC Sherlock. Villain is Jim Moriarty.
TEH: The Empty Hearse. Episode one, series three of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Lord Moran and C.A.M.
TSoT: The Sign of Three. Episode two, series three of BBC Sherlock. Villains are C.A.M., Mayfly Man, and (in my opinion) Mary.
The Stag Night: A sub-class of TSoT. In which Sherlock and John do unspeakably homoerotic things that reek of unresolved sexual tension. The tension is not relieved. They get arrested. Villains are the writers, for queerbaiting their fans.
HLV: His Last Vow. Episode three, series three of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Charles Augustus Magnussen and Mary Watson (Morstan? Rosamund Mary?).
TAB: The Abominable Bride. Episode four, series three of BBC Sherlock. (Originally aired as a TV movie that won a Primetime Emmy.) Also known as the ‘Gay Victorian Fever Dream’ to avid fans. Villains are Emelia Ricoletti, Sir Eustace Carmichael, Jim Moriarty, Mary Watson (Morstan? Rosamund Mary?).
TST: The Six Thatchers. Episode one, series four of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Vivian Norbury, Ajay, and Mary Watson (Morstan? Rosamund Mary?).
TLD: The Lying Detective. Episode two, series four of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Culverton Smith and John Watson.
TFP: The Final Problem. Episode three, series four of BBC Sherlock. Villains are Eurus Holmes, Mycroft Holmes, Jim Moriarty, and Moftiss.
Hi! I'm studying B1.2/B2 level Spanish and I want to learn * words to express things more*...(recently I learned,, conectores del discurso,, and some ,,frases hechas,,)
I'm sorry if you already posted something like this, I'm a new follower and I just saw that you have this account since 2013! (P.S.between it's hard for me to study words for any language; I have to write 1 word 10 times to memorize it,and others just read it once)
Have a great day!🌸
So I'm going to attach some of the (what I call) academic connectors. They're just words that I find really helpful for explaining things or especially in oral exams or written exams to sound more coherent and link your sentences together.
I suppose the more correct term is something like particles of speech or something along those lines, but they're the kinds of phrases you will want to know if you have any intention of writing in Spanish and especially if it's in an academic setting:
de hecho = in fact, as a matter of fact
no obstante = nevertheless, regardless
de todas formas = in any event, regardless
sin embargo = however, nevertheless
con respecto a (algo/alguien) = regarding (something/someone), with regards to (something/someone)
en cuanto a (algo/alguien) = regarding, with regards to
por lo general = in general
generalmente/normalmente = generally / normally
mayormente = for the most part, mostly, mainly
en su mayoría = mainly, in its majority, for the most part
en realidad = actually, in reality
actualmente = currently, nowadays
hoy en día = currently, nowadays, today
antiguamente = formerly, in the past, previously
por lo tanto = therefore, as such
a su paso = “in its wake”, “in its path”
a medida que = "as", "while (something is/was happening)"
ya que... = since, given that...
así = like that, that way
así que... = so..., that being the case...
pues... = then / since..., that being the case...
entonces = then [in a sequence of events] / then, consequently
por consiguiente / consiguientemente = consequently, as a consequence
de una vez = for once
de una vez por todas = once and for all
por enésima vez = "for the umpteenth time", "for the hundredth/millionth time" [hyperbolic]
al principio = in the beginning, at the start
al fin = at the end, in the end, at last, finally
lo primero es lo primero = “first things first”
por último, finalmente = lastly, finally, ultimately
dicho eso... = that being said...
susodicho/a = aforementioned
de antemano = beforehand
a lo largo de (periodo de tiempo) = throughout (time period)
durante = during / for
últimamente = lately, recently
según (algo/alguien) = according to (something/someone) / as per
de acuerdo con (algo) = as per (something), in accordance with
por lo visto = apparently, "it would seem..."
desde luego (que) = of course, surely
en absoluto = absolutely not, in no way
a pesar de (algo/alguien) = despite, in spite of (something/someone)
pese a (algo/alguien), despite, in spite of (something/someone)
a partir de = starting (at a point), since, from
a partir de hoy = starting today, from today on
a partir de aquí = from here on out
a partir de ahora = starting now, from now on
a partir de entonces = from that point on, from then on
a partir de mañana = as of tomorrow, starting tomorrow
de ahora/hoy en adelante = from now on, from this point on
en tal caso... = in that case...
por defecto = by default
principalmente = for the most part, mainly, mostly
además = furthermore, in addition
por casualidad = by chance, coincidentally
al azar = at random, randomly
al menos / por lo menos = at least
al contrario = on the contrary
por el contrario = by contrast
en cambio = in contrast, by contrast, conversely
al revés = upside-down, inside-out, topsy-turvy
(todo) patas arriba = “upside-down”, “everything in chaos”, “turned on its ear/head”
de igual manera = in the same way
de igual forma = in the same way
del mismo modo = in the same way
igualmente = likewise, in the same way
de manera diferente = differently
de otra manera = differently, in a different way
de otro modo = differently
tal y como = just like, exactly
tal y como es = exactly how it is
de/en cierto modo = in some way / in a sense
de cierta manera = in some way / in a sense
en algún sentido = in a sense
en cierto sentido = in a sense
de una manera u otra = one way or another
de una forma u otra = one way or another
apenas = hardly, barely
a duras penas = hardly, barely
a secas = plainly, simply
en lugar de, en vez de = instead (of)
[you’d phrase this as en lugar de algo “instead of something”, or en su lugar “in its stead” or “in its place”; it takes some getting used to]
por accidente, accidentalmente = accidentally, by mistake
todavía = still
de vez en cuando = “from time to time”
a la vez = at the same time, simultaneously
en promedio, como media = on average
por las buenas = “the easy way”
por las malas = “the hard way”
de corto plazo = short-term
de largo plazo = long-term
a cambio (de) = in exchange (for)
a propósito = on purpose, not an accident
por cierto = by the way
a/en todos los efectos = for all intents and purposes
en todo sentido = for all intents and purposes
mientras tanto = meanwhile
hasta = until, up to / even, including
hasta que + subjuntivo = until (something happens; subjunctive)
incluso = even, including
al pie de la letra = “to a T”, exactly, precisely, “by the book”
tomar al pie de la letra = to be very precise and methodical
(tomar algo) a la ligera = (to take something) lightly
por dondequiera / por doquier = “everywhere”, “every which way”, “all over the place”
de cabo a rabo = completely, through and through
al fin y al cabo = “at the end of the day”
por (el) otro lado = “on the other hand”
que yo sepa = as far as I know
que tú sepas = as far as you know
que nosotros sepamos = as far as we know
[follows conjugation rules for subjunctive saber]
es decir (que)... = that is to say..., in other words...
o sea... = in other words...
And obviously por and para which are their own issue but they come up a lot. Which is understandable but they’re a big hurdle even for people in the C levels
There are others that are better understood with examples because it’s not enough to just write it. So:
aun vs. aún
-aun with no accent is “even” and is synonymous with hasta or incluso
-aún with the accent is “yet” and is synonymous with todavía
-The expression o sea is used as “in other words”; do not confuse it with óseo/a which is “osseous” or “bone-related”, an adjectival form of hueso “bone”. Some people do write it as one word “osea” but it really should be separate... and sea is technically subjunctive ser
certain expressions with femenino de indeterminación
-a solas “one-on-one” or “privately”
-a sabiendas “knowing full well”
-a ciegas “blindly” or “in the dark”
-a escondidas “secretly”
And many others, some of which were in the longer vocab list above
subjunctive phrases [use with care]
-There are many phrases with subjunctive that you eventually need to know and they can be helpful in essays, though again this is its own topic. Things like para que “so that (something will happen)” or con tal (de) que “as long as (something happens)” are sort of subjunctive phrases of unmet conditions... things like “unless” or “until” things happen are subjunctive in many cases. Some like aunque become “although” with indicative and “even though / even if” in subjunctive... I say use with care because this is more of a functional vocab list not a grammar lesson.
solo, sólo, y solamente
-solo/a as an adjective means “only/single/a single person” or it means “alone”
-solo as an adverb is synonymous with sólo. The accent mark there is a vocal inflection so it’s like “ONLY”. You use either as “only” or “just”. Since it’s an adverb, solo will not change for gender/plural
-solamente is “solely” and is synonymous with solo/sólo
pero vs. sino
-pero is “but” when you’re changing the topic or providing different information; no es de Alemania pero habla alemán “he’s not German but he speaks German”
-sino is “but rather” when you’re correcting someone’s statement; no es alemán sino francés “he’s not German (but rather), he’s French”
I would also say it’s worth understanding how ya works because it’s got a lot of uses
I’m also going to attach some links to my tags that will help you navigate and find more of what you might be interested in:
Idiomatic Expressions (especially the older entries tend to be more universal; the newer ones are expressions I tend to find and am interested in sharing so if you go into my archive and look for the tag “idiomatic expressions” or “expresiones idiomaticas”
Grammar ...which is probably not what you need right at this moment, but in case you want to peruse my stuff on different grammatical concepts I have everything from present tense to imperfect subjunctive
Brand new challenge, this time we’re doing 35 words a week which is only 5 words a day! This challenge is going to be just verbs. This challenge is beginner friendly so you have no excuses. Good luck and don’t forget to revise!