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Fantasy Guide to Carriages, Coaches and Vehicles

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Your nobles are ready for the ball and your adventurers are ready to go off in their quest. But how to get there in style rather than run off on horseback? You may need to hitch a ride in these bitchin’ vehicles.

Cart/Wain/Wagon

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The cart is an open, flat wheeled vehicle that usually transports people and goods. The cart would be used by the commons, escpecially those travelling with goods such as wares to sell in markets. The cart would also be used by nobility and royalty as well to carry their trunks and chests. The cart would be horse-drawn or even people-driven.

Carriage

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The carriage is a private vehicle that is horse-drawn. Commoners could hire them like public transport to get to long distance locations but these were often shared. Carriage were not always comfortable as they were set on leather straps or strings which can sometimes jostle the occupier. Queen Elizabeth II complained that her carriage for her coronation made for a bumpy ride because of this.

Coach

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A coach is a closed-in four-wheeled carriage drawn by horses. The coach was usually driven by a coachman accompanied by footmen to open and close the doors. Coaches could be hired within cities but grand ones were a status symbol. The more horses that took to pull it, the richer you were because the greater the expense of keeping them. Mistresses in the Baroque period often showed off to each other by driving their coaches up and down before the houses of rivals. (of course when one did to Nell Gwyn, she responded by driving a mile cart up and down the rival mistress’s house yelling ‘whores to the market!’

Tanga

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The tanga is an Indian horse drawn carriage set on two large wheels. The passengers would sit in the rear while the driver sits up front. A canopy would be draped over the passengers to shield them from the sun.

Troika

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The troika is a Russian sleigh pulled by three horses harnessed abreast. The three horses each have a different gait: the middle horse trots while the side horses canter. The troika became a status symbol during the later years of the Imperial years of the Russian Empire. The troika was often hung with bells to warn people of its coming.

Barouche

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The barouche is an open carriage drawn by two horses and set on four wheels. Four passengers could be seated with within it two facing the horses and two face the rear. A roof could be drawn up over the passengers to protect them from vad weather.

Buggy

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A buggy is a horse-drawn carriage able to bear two passengers and set on two wheels. The buggy had a folded roof and was often driven by one of the passengers. It was used as an informal vehicle for the rich for going about the country and the poorer just it for travelling long distances.

Berline

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The Berline is probably the first thing one thinks of when thinking of a carriage. It was a covered four-wheeled vehicle usually drawn by two of more horses. The driver would be seated outside while the passangers sat with.

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Fantasy Guide to Noble Titles & What they Mean

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So I get a lot of questions about what nobles actually do or how much they own or why a certain title is higher than another. Understanding the complexities of nobility and their hierarchy can be a bit of a head twister but hopefully this will help you out. Just for the moment we will be focusing on European Titles because I can’t fit all the titles into one post. Forgive my shitty doodles. The diagrams mark out where the particular noble would rule.

Archduke/Archduchess

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These titles have two meanings. In the latter half of the Austrian Empire, it was used to denote senior members of the Royal family such as children and siblings. It is also a non Royal title given to someone who rules an archduchy, a large portion of land with in the kingdom. They are in charge of the archduchy, ensuring it runs smoothly. They are referred to as Your Grace.

Grand Duke/Grand Duchess

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The Grand Duke is probably the trickiest of all these titles as there is a dual meaning. A Grand Duke can rule a state as a sovereign like in Luxembourg or they can rule a Grand Duchy (a large portion of land within a kingdom) like the Grand Dukes of Russia. The Grand Duke was below the Archduke and their lands may be smaller. They are in charge of ruling their Grand Duchy, upholding the monarch’s laws in their name. They are referred to as Your Grace.

Duke/Duchess

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The Duke is the highest rank in most European nations. The Duke rules a large portion of the kingdom- called a Duchy- which you can think of as a county/state. The Duchies are often awarded by the monarch to their children who are not the heir. The Duke is charge with running that portion of land by order of the monarch, handling the over all business of that piece of the Kingdom. Dukes are referred to as Your Grace. There was only one Duke per Duchy.

Marquess/Marchioness

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A Marquess is the next rung down from Dukes. The Marquess is in charge of a portion of land within a Duchy which is called a Marsh which lays near a border. The Marquess is solely responsible for the running of that portion of land. The Marquess is called The Most Honourable (Insert name), the Marquess of XYZ. There could be multiple marquesses in a Duchy if it was near a large border.

Earl/Count/Countess/Compte/Comptesse

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An Earl/Count Rules over an Earldom, which is a section of a Duchy but it has less importance than a Marsh ruled by the Marquess. The Earl/Count is the third highest ranking within the Duchy. Often it was the subsidiary title of the heir of the Dukedom, so the eldest son/daughter of the Duke would be the Earl. The Earl/Count of X is addressed as Lord X for example, the Earl of Grantham, is called Lord Grantham. There could be multiple Earls/counts per Duchy.

Viscount/Viscountess/Viscompte/Viscomptess

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Viscounts are the Earl/Count’s second in command, ruling a portion of land with the Earldom. They handled the judiciary matters of their lands and their barons. Viscounts were addressed as the Right Honourable (insert name) Marquess of XY. Viscounts can also be used as a subsidiary title for the son of a Earl. When Thomas Boleyn was made Earl of Wiltshire, his son George was made Viscount Rochford. There might be multiple Viscounts in a Duchy.

Baron/Baroness

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The Baron is the lowest of ranks in the nobility pyramid. Before the mid-medieval period, almost all nobles were labelled as Barons. They ruled over a portion of the land under the Duke, the Earl and Viscount. There were always a huge force of barons with in the Duchy. They handled the minor local disputes of their lands, collecting taxes and monies owed. If they faced a larger issue or crime, they would pass it up to the next ranking noble the Viscount and then it could travel all the way up to the Duke. The Baron of Townville were referred to as as Lord Townville.

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WIP HOSPITAL: Electrocution

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Originally posted by thegetty

So I was asked by @kiarawonderingtheuniverse to today about electrocution. At first I found the ask shocking but then in sparked some inspiration for me. It really jumped started me and I decided to make an entire post on this.


Common Ways one might get electrocuted


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Originally posted by wannabblockb

  • power lines
  • lightning
  • electric weapons, such as Tasers (torture)
  • electrical outlets
  • Fences in Jurassic Park


What actually happens when you are Electrocuted

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Originally posted by fedren

Different things occur when different currents pass through your body.

Current (mA) Effect On Person

0.5 to 3 mA – Tingling sensations

3 to 10 mA – Muscle contractions and pain

10 to 40 mA – “Let-go” threshold

—————-Character In Danger———–

30 to 75 mA – Respiratory system may become paralyzed.

100 to 200 mA – Ventricular fibrillation (may lead to death)

200 to 500 mA – Heart clamps tight

Above 1500 mA – Tissue and organs start to burn


Things to Think About When Hurting Your Characters

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Originally posted by unknown-eva

Different Factors to factor in (ok, no more puns)

  • voltage
  • length of time in contact with the source
  • health of person
  • electricity’s path through your body
  • type of current

Symptoms of Electrocution

  • loss of consciousness
  • muscle spasms
  • problems with vision or hearing
  • headache
  • breathing problems
  • numbness or tingling
  • Vomiting
  • Burns: 1. Electrical burns – caused by the current following through your tissue. It can affect skin, muscles and bones. As the current passes through you, it makes heat which burns you since your body can’t dissipate the heat. 2. Arc burns: These are caused only by the high temperatures made by electrical arcs or explosions sparking close to your body. 3. Thermal contact burns: These are caused when physical contact is made with surfaces heated by electricity.
  • seizures
  • irregular heartbeat


Treating Electrocution Victims

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Originally posted by cinnamonrollwhump

  1. Don’t touch someone who has been shocked as they could still have some currents running through them if near the source of electrocution.
  2. Don’t move the victim unless it is necessary to get them to a safer position.
  3. If it is possible, turn off the electric outlet using something unable to conduct electric city like wood and rubber. Use nothing WET or METAL.
  4. Call emergency services if you can.
  5. If emergency services ask or cannot reach you, you will have check the person’s pulse and breathing.
  6. If the patient has stopped breathing, start CPR.
  7. If the patient is going into shock i.e vomiting, fainting, looking pale. You should elevate their legs. If the person is in pain, don’t do this.
  8. Any burns should be covered with gauze. Don’t use any material in danger if sticking to the burn.
  9. Keep the person warm.
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Last time I talked about the reactive/proactive side of your act 2. Now it’s time to get into some of the story beats. (featuring: wildly inconsistant capitalization)

First we get the break into act 2. This is the transition from the first act to the second and is marked by some event that pushes the characters into a new circumstance where they cannot go back. The only way out is by moving forward. At around this time, they’re going to be somewhat flailing around. They’re out of their depth and they definitely don’t have a handle on the whole situation. 

Then we get to the Promise of the Premise. Basically, whatever you pitched your story to be, this is where it’s going to take place. You are delivering to your readers what they signed up to read. Throughout this, things are going to start off hard, but as your character gets the hang of things, they’re going to get easier, and challenges are going to increase in difficulty to accomodate this. 

Within the PotP, there’s going to be probably around two pinch points - these are going to be obsticals your character has to overcome, each raising the stakes a little more than the previous one, and each being a little bit more difficult to account for the fact that your character’s growing.

Also during this time, if you have a B story, this is about the time to set that up too.

Then you hit the midpoint! This is almost like a mini-climax; it’s a high that’s only surmounted by the real climax. During the midpoint, your character will discover a new angle to the problem, and try to take it. What this leads to will vary, but the discovery itself usually comes in the form of a major plot twist.

Then… things start to get hard. Your character tries to continue, but unlike in the first half of the act, they’re starting to lose control again. Things start to slip and your character fights even harder: we’re rooting for them! but it’s just not going in their favor.

Then we hit the point where the WORST POSSIBLE THING HAPPENS. This is the thing your characters thought they could count on. This thing is also the shift from act 2 to act 3. In romance stories, this might be the love interest rejecting them. In a mystery, it might be the detective getting fired from the case. In sports stories, it might be the character getting a really bad injury. 

And now that we’re in the pits of dispair, this is where I’m going to cackle and bid your character good luck :)

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Why am I going through the acts backward? Because I feel like it. That’s why. 

Annnywaaaayy…

Act 2 is where we get to see the bulk of a character’s growth an change. Which makes sense, as it usually takes up about half the book. 

Before I get to the actual beats of Act 2 (next post), something I want to point out which was very useful to me when I was learning how to avoid Sagging Middle Syndrome (aka the beginning and end of the story are fine but the middle suuucks or just gets kinda boring). This is, before the midpoint, your character is going to be more reactive. They’re going to have agency, but the story is heavily affecting each of their choices - they’re playing by the rules more or less. After the midpoint, your character is going to be more proactive. Their actions are heavily affecting the story now - they’re thinking outside the box, creating their own rules.

An example of this is the Hunger Games. The midpoint was when Katniss dropped the tracker jackers all over the Careers. It was her emotional turning point from purely defensive toward “oh maybe I can win this.” Before that, through, the rules were: hide, survive, don’t trust people, stay away from the careers or you’ll die. The choices Katniss made were within those rules. After that, through, she teams up with Rue, and goes to blow up the Career’s food to give herself and Rue a shot at winning. By this point, she’s changed the rules.

If you’re getting stuck, think about the rules. In the first half of Act 2, how does your character try to come up with solutions to the problems while playing by the rules? How does playing by the rules get them into trouble? If they test the boundaries a little bit, what happens to convince them to stay within the rules? (ex - at the beginning of act 2, Katniss ran toward the cornucopia to get supplies - somewhat breaking the rules - and nearly gets killed with a knife.)

After the midpoint, think about how your character can break the rules? What consequences does this have? Remember: the rules are there for a reason - your character will achieve more, but breaking the rules means they will also lose more (for example, Katniss loses her hearing in one ear. Rue gets killed).

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“Hey, thanks for the answer my flower symbolism for siblings question. I am so sorry I don’t really have a better way to narrow it down for you.

My world is fantasy and set on furturistic earth (3000AD) and mostly in another realm where there’s no dominant race and no minority races either. I sort of took the population of all countries on earth and borrowed 30 countries in a row from the middle.

Humans are one race and are all mixed skin color. The culture frepresent humanity as one culture. Specific culture has been lost in origin. Basically whatever culture humans had when they came over from earth got intertwined in the culture and also evolved separately from earth and like any culture certain aspects can die down or grow. Different culture are simply preferences. Do you want to wear a T shirt or button down shirt is no different than do you want to wear a sari or kilt? Gender lines most certainly blur.

However, which culture specificdally?? Yeah I kinda used all sorts of cultures around the world, all older ones including Ancient Egyptian. So anything goes really!! I mostly asked about specific culture because I do not want to default to anything that’s like you said Victorian lol. Anyway Victorian is way too new, the newest I had taken is probably the Mongol Empire in the 14th century. This is because I needed nearly 2 millennia of growth to have lost culture origin.” - hi


Hi hi (again!),

What you describe sounds a lot like you will be making up your own meanings a lot for that setting. With so many cultures mingled and so much time having past it’s hard to say what will have survived of today’s knowledge. As it stands there is no comprehensive record of flower meanings in relations to siblings to begin with. You can hardly default to something for which there is no default.

Different cultures treat siblings differently so it might be an idea to look at which customs might have been adapted from which corner of the world, if that is something you are interested in for your story.

Anything goes with such a mixed base just means that you can do your own thing for your story now.

Perhaps instead of meanings it would be more helpful to you to have a look at how flower meanings developed and go from there? Here’s our tag for it.

The origins of floristry come partly from the ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks. So you may want to look into that?  The ask here is about architecture, because art periods go hand in hand with floristry in that matter. The earliest known flower arrangements come from Egypt (2.500 BC) – larkspur, chrysanthemums and loti come to mind. Closely followed the Romans, Greeks and Chinese. Only in Europe we don’t have records of floral arrangements before the Middle Ages. So if your story requires ancient floral designs this is the corner to start in.

However, as meanings go from that time period they practically don’t exist, most of what we know about flowers from the Romans and Greeks is associated with their temples and gods. Here’s an ask about flowers and gods regarding that.

Since your setup is so broad, I am not sure if it makes sense to look for flowers that go along with the relationships of the siblings (how well they get along) since that bears the risk of boxing them in. However, it could work well for a specific set of siblings that play a reoccurring role in your story.

– Mod Jana

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_flower_arrangement

Disclaimer

This blog is intended as writing advice only. This blog and its mods are not responsible for accidents, injuries or other consequences of using this advice for real world situations or in any way that said advice was not intended.

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*I’m using the term editing outline as the outline for your manuscript you are using in order to see what edits need to be made - NOT a timeline for when you are making what edits and stuff.

FIRST - MAKING YOUR OUTLINE

This can be a little tedious, but the first step is to read through your manuscript through front to back. For each scene (NOT CHAPTER), write down a short note/sentence about

  • what your character’s goal is
  • what the conflict is
  • how the scene ends

remember - make sure you’re specific enough that you don’t need the context of other scene descriptions to remember what each means.

Personally, I like to number my scenes so they’re easier to find when I’m referencing that part of my manuscript. The system I usually use is [chapter #].[scene letter] - meaning that if I was numbering the second scene in the fourth chapter, I would number it as 4.B.

This list is going to get pretty long, but it’s worth it.

Also, put in a header where the act breaks are. Because of how you are likely going to be moving things around, chapters may get a little fluid, but acts are going to stay fairly steady.

SECOND - DELETING AND COMBINING

This is useful for making note of what scenes are just not going to be going into the next draft in their current form. If there’s anything that’s completely useless, cross it out or highlight it in a specific color. If there’s two scenes that can be better combined into one because they’re really similar, highlight those in a different color and give them the label of the first scene.

(steps continued under the break)

Keep reading

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What is in my heart, if not the desire for home? Undoubtedly, I pray for a fixed place in the world like the stars in the sky and the stones within the earth. His question rings in my ears, tolling like the groan of the bronze bells of the island fastness where once I been loved. What do you do now?
The challenge in his eyes is clear cut as diamonds on jeweller’s cloth, the edge to his words almost rattling like a coin upon a table. What are you willing to do? How far are you willing to go to?

-Extract from Val 7, BOOK 9 of The Thirteen Kingdoms series

Taglist: @authoressasusual @you-reblogged-from @word-by-word @trapped-inadystopianovel @wanderingalonelypath @mysthicrider @thebestmollygrue @reignnyx @writinglyra @anomaly00 @thewordsinthesky-andstars @heldinhishands @dhampier @writing-in-rain @paperandredink @writeblrfantasy @mayawritesbooks @valiant-wielder @treesandwords @nicopeppah @ink-and-stories @ezra-ezra-ezra @dragonauthor @violetcancerian @cheeseplatypusandiceskates @ravens-and-rivers @sprigofbasil

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Basically, when you’re doing the biggest parts of the developmental edit, there are three things going on after you come up with your basic outline: brainstorming, creation, and clean up. 

Brainstorming is coming up with the beats of a specific scene and/or the order in which you want things to happen (for example, is she going to smash the plate on the floor yell at her friend for making her drop it? or is she going to yell at her friend and drop her plate from over-gesticulating?).

Creation is when you are taking scenes and either rewriting them or combining them with other scenes, or when you are creating new scenes entirely. This is sometimes done while referencing your first draft, sometimes not.

Clean up is when you’re looking at your first draft and making notes on scenes you’re keeping into the second draft like “fix this character voice” or “this should come after that thing.” or (my all time favorite) “NO!” Basically, it’s getting your ideas down about the things you want to change.

If you get stuck on one, the key is to move to a different one. They all take different amounts of energy and output, and they use different creative muscles. Be smart with your time and don’t cause yourself to get burnt out.

Happy editing :)

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At least in my personal experience, I’ve had to rewrite 90% or more of my scenes going from my first draft to my second draft. To be fair, I didn’t really know how story structure worked when I started, and my author voice was all over the place, but it’s still been a major step in the process.

The first thing to do is mark up your original scene - places that you want to clean up, beats you want to reorder, where you want scenes to mesh together if you’re combining them, where you want the scene to split into two if you’re seperating it, paragraphs or sentences to cut, information you want to move elsewhere, things like that. This is useful both as a brainstorming tool - as you’re getting into the mindset of changing stuff around, but it’s also going to make rewriting the scene so much easier since you have a lot of the details about what you want to do with it right there.

Then write your scene beat by beat, referencing the appropriate part of your first draft scene for things you want to include/leave out. For chunks in your first draft that you liked, you may be able to type them all in pretty much virbatum. For sections that you needed to clean up, read through it again, and then try to write that section so it’s tidier (this is when referencing really helps, as you have all the information you want to include in the section right there).

I guess the main idea is taking notes on your original and then improving upon what you have based on those notes.

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