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inlemoon · 9 minutes ago
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Art by TALUB (@TG_ptL46)
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inlemoon · 5 days ago
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sesshomaru icons ☽.*•
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inlemoon · 5 days ago
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View on Twitter
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inlemoon · 8 days ago
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inlemoon · 8 days ago
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✦ marin ✦ malon
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inlemoon · 8 days ago
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Different from us
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inlemoon · 8 days ago
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Link 💚🌱
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inlemoon · 9 days ago
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Selection against Neanderthal-human hybrids in humans
(I’m going to go with the handy convention that the primary ancestor group of modern humans are called ‘humans’ and other branches aren’t, but I very much think of Neanderthals as a subset of humans.)
One of the most interesting things I got from Who We Are and How We Got Here was more information on Neanderthal-human hybridization. I knew the common factoid that that non-Africans have about 2% Neanderthal ancestry, that this mixture had happened about 40K years ago when humans expanded into Europe, and that Neanderthals went extinct several thousand years afterwards.
Zooming in on that 2% –
The average proportion of Neanderthal ancestry in non-African populations is about 2 percent, but it is not spread evenly. In more than half the genome, no Neanderthal ancestry has been detected in anyone. But in some unusual places in the genome, more than 50 percent of DNA sequences are from Neanderthals.
Where do we see selection against Neanderthal ancestry? In parts of the genome known to be relevant to the fertility of hybrids.
One is the X chromosome, which apparently is a default site of selection-against-minority-ancestry in hybrids:
How is it that hybridization can lead to so much less genetic variation on chromosome X than on the rest of the genome? From studies of a variety of species across the animal kingdom, it is known that when two populations are separated for long enough, hybrid offspring have reduced fertility. In mammals like us, reduced fertility is much more common in males, and the genetic factors contributing to this reduced fertility are concentrated on chromosome X. So when two populations are so separated that their offspring have reduced fertility, but nevertheless mix together to produce hybrids, it is expected that there will be intense natural selection to remove the factors contributing to reduced fertility. This process will be especially evident on chromosome X because of the concentration of genes contributing to infertility on it. As a result, there tends to be natural selection on chromosome X for stretches of DNA from the population that contributed most of the hybrid population’s ancestry. This causes the hybrid population to derive its chromosome X almost entirely from the majority population, leading to an anomalously low genetic divergence on chromosome X between the hybrid population and one of the hybridizing populations, consistent with the pattern seen in humans and chimpanzees.
Another relevant area where Neanderthal ancestry was selected are genes responsible for the male reproductive tissue. Apparently they’re finicky. Genes that are active in the germ cells of testicles have less Neanderthal ancestry on average than genes that are most active in other body tissues.
These aren’t the only parts of the genome where Neanderthal ancestry was selected against, just the sites of strongest selection. Neanderthal genes have been selected against around the majority of genes – there is far more Neanderthal ancestry in noncoding DNA than in coding. The book has this striking visualization of the decline. Neanderthal ancestry in humans was closer to 3~6 percent when hybridization occurred in Europe.
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Hybrids were only kind of working out, fertility-wise; Neanderthals and humans must have been on the brink of speciation at the time they met.
Just as interesting as “what was selected against”, if not more: Where do we see selection for Neanderthal ancestry? Skin and hair!
Interbreeding with Neanderthals helped modern humans to adapt to new environments just as interbreeding with Denisovans did. We and others showed that at genes associated with the biology of keratin proteins, present-day Europeans and East Asians have inherited much more Neanderthal ancestry on average than is the case for most other groups of genes. This suggests that versions of keratin biology genes carried by Neanderthals were preserved in non-Africans by the pressures of natural selection, perhaps because keratin is an essential ingredient of skin and hair, which are important for providing protection from the elements in cold environments such as the ones that modern humans were moving into and to which Neanderthals were already adapted.
Other neat Neanderthal facts I’m shoehorning in:
- They were less genetically diverse than humans (book says ‘the diversity of their genomes was about four times smaller’, but I’m not sure what figure actually represents) – this may have been a problem for them that contributed to their extinction, because low-genetic-diversity populations tend to stack up more detrimental mutations.
- Neanderthal-human mixing happened in Europe, but the current day group with the most Neanderthal ancestry is East Asians. This is probably because humans mixed with Neanderthals, spread out over Eurasia, and then Europe had another influx of non-Neanderthal human expansion that contributed to the current-day European gene pool and diluted Neanderthal ancestry.
- Topical: this month, the author’s DNA mentor published a paper showing that a (the?) major genetic risk factor for severe COVID cases is inherited from Neanderthals. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.03.186296v1
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inlemoon · 9 days ago
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Sesshomaru’s Mother
Art by 真純 想 (@so_masumi)
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inlemoon · 9 days ago
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inlemoon · 9 days ago
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let’s settle this shit but do NOT reblog if you’re gonna be modest about it like a little BITCH. anyway privilege check tell me which ones apply to you: hot, funny, can dance, can do math, can spell, can drive, can cook
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inlemoon · 9 days ago
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the most important step in the hero’s journey is the gay sex
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inlemoon · 9 days ago
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my biggest issue with tiktok is like…yes as a 25 year old i am going to find teenagers inherently annoying so whatever. but that doesn’t mean teenagers shouldn’t have the opportunity to connect with each other and share content and explore media etc etc. HOWEVER i think tiktok sets an insane and dangerous precedent of having your Actual Face And Voice in these posts that are ultimately pretty publicly accessible to anyone. like, teenagers deserve to have spaces in which they can be cringey and embarrassing and weird and nerdy but for everyone’s sakes it should be fairly anonymous…i shudder to think of the world in which every unhinged thing i ever posted about glee or sherlock or hp or whatever had my dumb little 14 year old face attached to it for anyone to see over a decade later.
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inlemoon · 11 days ago
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Rumiko Takahashi’s Official Twitter on Sesshomaru and Inuyasha’s Father
[Character’s Small Talk]
Inuyasha’s father
He is no longer with us, but he is a big part of his sons’ lives. The model for the skull is a saber-toothed tiger. I happened to get a specimen of it and thought I would use it since I had the chance. He seems to be very critical of Sesshomaru, but I think he thought, “He’s the older brother, he’s a real youkai, and he should be strong on his own.”
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inlemoon · 22 days ago
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inlemoon · 22 days ago
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it's all fun and games until you take a little too long to swallow your medication and you start tasting it
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inlemoon · 25 days ago
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Here’s Dean working a case in a haunted house :D Just wanted to draw something simple and atmospheric! Enjoy! 👻🖤
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