Przejdą lata i wieki przeminą,
Pozostaną ślady dawnych dni
I wszystkie maki na Monte Cassino
Czerwieńsze będą, bo z polskiej wzrosły krwi.
Czerwone maki na Monte Cassino (The Red Poppies on Monte Cassino, a Polish military song)
On this day 76 years ago, 19 May 1944, the Battle of Monte Cassino ended.
Here goes, burnt in wood, my tribute to that sad victory.
An Italian soldier fires a 194mm railway gun during the Battle of Monte Cassino (Italy, 1944).
ah, yes, battle of monte cassino or as i like to call it - the battle when poland gave germany a heart attack and a mental breakdown
The War episode 3
The War episode 3: Americans are shocked by terrible losses on the Pacific atoll of Tarawa, while in Italy Allied forces are stalled for months at Monte Cassino, and a risky landing at Anzio fails utterly. #history #worldwar2 #montecassino
The War episode 3: Americans are shocked by terrible losses on the Pacific atoll of Tarawa, while in Italy Allied forces are stalled for months at Monte Cassino, and a risky landing at Anzio fails utterly. At home, as overcrowded “war towns” boom, economic transformation leads to confrontation and ugly racial violence.
The Emmy award-winning documentary THE WAR explores the history and…
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the cambridge student
The Roman theatre crouches in the mount’s looming shadow:
It has stood the test of time.
If only the same could be said for Cassino.
The abbey stands aloft on the great mountain;
I never would have believed its youth.
A shrapnel town, each utility box of a building standing precipitously on the blasted stone terraces
That once supported their ancestors.
The houses limber up the steep slopes, trying frantically to reach the top.
Their movement is frantic,
like the array of the men that defended that place.
The men whose names are inscribed on limestone epitaphs
Just a few metres from the booming autostrada,
In a field that deserves more peace than it has.
They say they shall not grow old; yet
There is more of the Roman town than the original Cassino.
In my aimless wandering away from the cemetery
I am bombarded with solicitudes.
Yet I am astonished to discover the river that gushes keenly through the Cassino of today;
Its clear blue waters sparkle, caught against emerald thorns of hydrilla.
I wince as I dip my hand into the river; it comes straight from the mountain;
The Italian high summer never felt so cold.
The water is as verdant as nature itself;
Nature heals all. If only all could heal nature.
* the men who ‘defended’ that place are not the same men who lie in the Commonwealth War Cemetery. The men in the cemetery were the attackers in the Battle of Monte Cassino.
German medics struggle to evacuate a wounded comrade during the Battle for Monte Cassino - 17th January - 18th May 1944
The steep treacherous flanks of Monte Cassino meant it could take as long as eight hours for the wounded on both sides to reach field hospitals; many were killed by artillery fire or mines or died of their wounds while en route.
Wojtek, the bear who served in the military
Yes, you read the title correctly. There was a bear who had an official rank in the polish army during WW2.
The Polish II Corps found him abandoned as a cub, and subsequently took him in as their mascot. He was very loved by the company and they took very good care of him. They brought him fruit, honey, marmalade, syrup and his favorite drink: beer. He also became fond of eating cigarrettes and drinking coffee. He would playfully wrestle with the soldiers taking care of him, and would mimic them as well. He would try to march with them on his hind legs for example.
As I mentioned earlier, Wojtek actually received an official military rank. Why? Well, the regulations for transport ships forbade all animals, so to get around this problem, Wojtek was drafted as a private in the Polish army. Therefore, the people in charge of controlling shipment viewed his name on the list of troops to transport as yet another human soldier. Another benefit of his new rank was that he received rations as well.
But his story doesn't end there. Wojtek got a promotion to corporal. How? I'll tell you: During the Battle of Monte Cassino, Wojtek helped carry 100-pound (45 kg) crates containing artillery shells. He watched as the soldiers picked up the crates and loaded them onto a truck. After he had observed them for a while, he started to pick up crates that would normally take 4 men to carry, then walked up to the truck on his hind legs and proceeded to load them onto the truck. After he'd done this routine he would start over. Thanks to him, his unit were able to supply the Allies with a large amount of ammunition quicker than usual.
In addition to his promotion, the official Emblem of the 22nd Artillery Supply Company (the unit of the Polish II Corps that took care of Wojtek) depicts a bear carrying an artillery shell, as a way to honor Wojtek.
After the war, Wojtek was sent to a zoo in Edinburgh, where he lived until his death in 1963. He was 21 years old. He was frequently visited by both journalists and former Polish soldiers, and several statues were erected in his honor.
APH Headcanon #11
My opinion about the relationship between Poland the Italy brothers
I really LOVE both ItaPol and RomaPol (+ ships with nyos), they can work as lovers or best friends imo, I don't really mind. There are lots of good historical, political and social reasons why these ships have a sense and I'm here to explain to you the most important ones!
In the Napoleonic Period, lots of Polish soldiers, army officials and volunteers emigrated in Italy, forming the Polish Legion, a sort of army in exile. Notable Polish commanders included Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, Karol Kniaziewicz, Józef Wybicki e Antoni Amilkar Kosiński.
It was then that the future Polish national anthem, Mazurek Dąbrowskiego, was created by Józef Wybicki with words that promised "the return of the Polish army from Italy to Poland". In homage, the Italian anthem, Il Canto degli Italiani, spoke of the Polish sacrifice against the Austrian and Russian oppressions on Poles, "the Polish blood".
Parts of present-day Poland and North Italy long belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways made it possible to travel between Krakow and the Porto Franco of Trieste.
In 1918, Italy was the first country in Europe to recognize the sovereignty of Poland.
There are about 109.018 Poles living in Italy (one of the biggest foreign community of the boot-shaped country) and there are about 8.000 Italians living in Poland.
5. Polish help during the Italian liberation wars
The Mickiewicz Legion was a military unit formed in 1848 in Rome by one of the most famous Polish poets, Adam Mickiewicz, to take part in the liberation of Italy after the failure of the Great Polish Revolt of 1848. After unsuccessfully pleading with Pope Pius IX for support, Mickiewicz was joined in Milan by a military detachment of Polish emigrants, led by Mikolaj Kaminski. Growing to 120 members by June, the legion, commanded by Kaminski, engaged in several battles. They fought alongside others in Lombardy and on the barricades of Genoa against the royalists, in defense of the Roman Republic.
6. Italian help during the Polish independence war
The Garibaldi Legion was a unit of Italian volunteers who fought for Polish independence in the January 1863 insurrection. The unit takes its name from the Italian revolutionary and nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi, organized in Italy by his son Menotti Garibaldi and led by general Francesco Nullo. The first battle for unity in Poland was in Podłęże on May 3, 1863 where hr defeated a Russian force. Subsequently, he took part in the battle of Krzykawka, where together with the Zouaves of death organized by France he suffered heavy losses; Nullo was killed and his aide was fatally wounded and died several days later. Francesco Nullo is considered a hero of independence both in Italy and in Poland.
7. Polish help during WW2
The Polish Corps II participated in the Italian campaign: 11.379 men died, many of them buried in the Polish war cemetery of Monte Cassino or Casamassima. Meanwhile, despite the poor contact between Italians and Poles during the war, the Italian army was thought to be among the nicest towards Poles and had never treated Poles in a brutal way unlike its German counterparts. A group of Italian soldiers had even disobeyed from continuing to fight, leading to mass executions of Italian soldiers in Poland, and this action became a living symbol of strong Italian-Polish friendship.
An in depth look at HWS New Zealand
Name: Mikaere (Meaning godlike or one who is like god)
English Given Name: Howard (Howie) Kirkland
Human Age: 18
National Age: 180+
Gender: Non-binary (He/They)
General Appearance: Howie is around 5′5, they’re slight in stature but they can be big in presence. He is Māori, so his skin is a more warm brown than most of his “siblings” He somehow managed to inherit Arthur’s green eyes, something he regrets more than anything about his appearance. His hair falls in thick soft curls around his face, normally tucked back behind his ears. His face and body are splattered with freckles that get just a little bit more prominent when he’s been out in the sun for long periods of time. He has a large tattoo on his back, taking up most of it, and even dipping out across his hips and waist. The second tattoo is a band around his left arm. He also has a large scar running the length of his torso, and a smaller one cutting under his right rib. Aside from those he has many tiny ones across his hands and legs that heal up quickly from stupid stunts. He has a tongue piercing but he doesn’t always leave it in. He tends to fidget with it when he does.
As for clothes he can be found on one of two extremes. Cottagecore or punk. He is fond of his soft sweaters and work boots. But he also can be seen sporting leather jackets and spikes. It all depends on the mood of the day. But he does typically give off an approachable vibe either way.
General Personality: They’re not exactly a quiet type for sure. They’re outspoken about their needs, wants, and opinions. He’s both a lover and a fighter. Taking care of his siblings when he can, but not hesitating to go to bat for them in a fight. Howie loves children and is always willing to babysit if another nation needs it. He’s a goofball at times, and pulls stupid stunts that can land him hurt or in trouble. He’s one of a few of the anglosphere children to yell in Arthur’s face, in some ways taking after Alfred.
Considered Family List:
Arthur Kirkland (England)
Jett Kirkland (Australia)
Alfred Jones (America)
Matthew Williams (Canada)
Jia Long (Hong Kong)
The Manaia rests in the center of his back, surrounded by intricate patterns that somewhat tell his life story.
The Manaia represents the connection to the spirit world and the mortal, and is said to ward off evil. Howie got it right before leaving to fight in WW1 thinking it would protect him, and wanting to bring pride to his culture and home.
On his upper left arm rests the Pakati pattern in a thick band.
This marks them as a warrior and he got it before leaving for WW2. Older now, and independent he believed it was time to take that title as he had been involved with many conflicts leading up to this.
History and timeline:
The New Zealand Wars
Mikaere was born sometime before the coming conflict. Whom he was raised by up until that point is unknown. They do not remember them, and Arthur never met them. When Te riri Pākehā (Another name for the conflict) began Mikaere was still a small child. They don’t remember it all too vividly but they still resent it as it was the beginning of English control and the destruction of their native culture. It was during this time Mikaere was found by Arthur and for lack of a better term, adopted. He was renamed Howard, and took on the last name Kirkland. It was also then that he was moved off the island to best avoid the fighting and when he met his brothers. He bonded well with both Jett and Jia Long (Then anglicized Leon). But there is still a lingering resentment to this day for the happenings of this time period.
Howie was raised in the same house as his two closest brothers, and that created a strong between the three of them. Arthur was not the most attentive parent in the world and that lead to many issues growing up. They weren’t unhappy or lonely but they were often homesick and confused. When Howie was around eight or nine he met Alfred for the first time and it is still something they are confused about. Their older brother was much preferable to Matthew or even their father. But it still felt strange. Alfred often came bearing gifts and large boats and many loud and unpleasant people. And at dinner there would always be some sort of argument. He was too young at the time to understand that Arthur was still at odds with his eldest. Other notable events are; the continuation of Māori resistance, a visit from Germany, a visit from Japan, a surprise visit from Russia, and the first New Zealand built locomotive.
Gaining dominion status and the Great War:
After gaining dominion status in 1907 Howie was faced with a choice. They could either move out of Arthur’s home and return home permanently, or they could stay. Jett had gained independence in 1901, six years earlier, and he was home less and less. Out of guilt however Howie decides to stay and look after Jia Long, and at times, Arthur. He worried his father may not be able to handle losing another child. As WW1 crept closer on the horizon Howie prepared to go to war by receiving his first tattoo, the Manaia across his back. The disaster of Gallipoli left him scared as almost three thousand of his men died, he still holds resentment against Arthur for that, and slowly over time it festers. He goes on to fight, transferring to the western front and participating in the Battle of Passchendaele where 3,700 of his soldiers fell. This only added to the length of the painful and deep scar cutting across his heart and torso. Finally the war comes to an end, however when they return home new truths come to light. Arthur confesses to the details behind his name change and how he came to be in his care. This paired with the folly of Gallipoli was enough to make him break ties with his father figure and finally strike out on his own.
Howie enters WW2 at Arthur’s behest and participates in joint operations with him for a time. They get their second tattoo, denoting them as a warrior. After the attack on pearl harbor war is also declared on Japan and Howie worries after his older brother significantly. As threats of a Japanese invasion rise Howie finds themselves at home more and more, taking on the role of medic for the first time and finding they rather prefer the position. In June of 1942 Alfred arrives and the two spend a lot of time together before his departure. He participates in the invasion of Italy not as a soldier but as a medic, having decided that is the role he prefers to play. Before the war ends he gains another scar, under his right rib. This represents the battle of Monte Cassino.
Then to present:
After that Howie attempted to avoid conflict. They’d rather not follow in their father or older brother’s footsteps. Though he continues to care for his family, as well as seek Alfred’s approval, he’s more set to look inward. For now he’s moved on to better days, finding a solid relationship with Yong-Soo, and applying for medical school which would be the first time he attended college.
Brief relationship bios:
The relationship is a parental one. Though not exactly solid. Howie loves him terribly but they often find themselves at odds with him. They blame him for a lot of his troubles and rightly so. Their childhood was not pleasant. But for all of the pain they still check up on him regularly. Making sure he knows he’s somewhat appreciated and not forgotten. They do their best to explain how they’ve been hurt and why things can’t be the way they were but it’s difficult.
See following fic for more elaboration:
Jett is Howie’s closest companion and has been throughout their life. Despite being the younger sibling they take a defensive role over him and will fuck up anyone who tries to start shit. They were brought closer via abandonment but they made the best out of it. They’re too halves of the same idiot. Often Howie will get into trouble and Jett will take the blame for them, allowing Howie to keep up his innocent façade.
Alfred and Matthew:
Alfred is somewhat protective over them, while Matthew could not care less. Howie’s relationship with Alfred while distant, is solid.
Jia Long is the third in Jett and Howie’s group of terror. While not as often involved he never passes up an opportunity to get into trouble with them and Howie often employs him on pranks targeted against Yao and Arthur. They sort of understand where the other is coming from. Not completely, but some of the experiences are the same, causing them to bond. Once again Howie is highly protective over him and will go to fists.
Ireland and Scotland:
I don’t have solid characters for either nation but I do know historically speaking they would have good relationships with Howie. Historically New Zealand has stood behind both of them when it comes to conflict with Britain and the immigration rate back and forth between both countries is very high.
That’s it for now but I constantly have brainrot about this kid so probably more at a later date.
June 27, 2021 :: Prior to our vacation we had watched a WWII documentary that detailed the battles in Italy. We cringed at the bombing of the Abbey of Monte Cassino that left a smoldering ruin in its wake. We were shocked to learn that the Abbey that stands today was rebuilt in ten years after the war. Seriously, I don’t know how this was done. Artisans recreated the interior of the Abbey exactly as it was prior to the bombing. What a monumental task! The marble work alone blew our minds.
While we were there we learned that this monastery has been fraught with disaster since its founding.
The first monastery on Monte Cassino was sacked by the invading Lombards around 570 and abandoned. Of the first monastery almost nothing is known. The second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was sacked by Saracens and abandoned again. The community of monks resided first at Teano and then from 914 at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in 949.
Are you seeing a pattern here?
The 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age. It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti, which it heavily fortified with castles. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church, even receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors. It encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and even Saracen artisans. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognized the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, and three popes were drawn from the abbey.
By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In 1322, Pope John XXII elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367. The buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, and in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding. In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua.
In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars. The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing. It was rebuilt after the war.
The museums are well worth the price of the ticket and contain (among other treasures) a painting by Titian. Strolling through the museums proved a peaceful repast and we were glad for the air conditioning.
Photos ©2021 Narcisse Navarre. Please do not use without my permission.
REST IN PEACE ALBERT !!!! 🇨🇦🙏🇨🇦
This photo, taken on October 3, 1943, in Volturara Appula, Italy, shows Trooper Albert A. Coulombe (Manitoba, Canada) having a little rest on his Norton 16H motorcycle. During WWII, this Canadian hero served his beloved country with The Calgary Regiment, 14th Armoured Regiment. Sadly, on May 12, 1944, Albert was killed in action during the deadly Battle of Monte Cassino. He was only 21 years old. Albert is now resting in peace at the Cassino War Cemetery in Italy.
19 May 2014 | Prince Harry and Commander James Dible, Naval and Air Attacher of UK Embassy in Rome, attend the UK commemoration at the Cassino Commonwealth War Cemetery in Cassino, Italy. Prince Harry will attend a number of events commemorating the Allied Campaign during WWII, focussing on the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Monte Cassino during his two-day official visit to Italy. (c) Elisabetta Villa/Getty Images
My deranged military history physical TBR
So, yeah, these are basically my accumulated military history books that I have to read. It’s not all of them. I just decided to post what I have written down so far.
Orlando Figes - Crimea: The Last Crusade
Osprey Campaigns: Gettysburg, 1863: High tide of the Confederacy
Marcin Suchacki - From Custozza to Loigny 1866-70: From history of wars for unification of Germany and Italy
Osprey Raid: The Great Locomotive Chase: The Andrews Raid 1862
Piotr Olender - Naval Military Science of the Period of “Steam and Iron” (1860-1905)
Karol Kleczke, Władysław Wyszyński - Permanent Fortification
Herbert Wrigley Wilson - Battleships in Action
S. Pataj - Land Artillery
Józef Wiesław Dyskant, Andrzej Michałek - Port Arthur, Tsushima 1904-1905
Andrzej Zbierski, Marek Cieślak, Lech Trawicki - Participation of poles in russo-japanese war at sea in years of 1904-1905
Grzegorz Nowak - British battleship of year 1906. HMS Dreadnought
Krzysztof Marcinek - Izera and Ypres , Campaign in Flanders 1914
Gabriel Chevallier - Fear: A Novel of World War I
Tomasz Rogacki - Cingtao 2 IX–7 XI 1914
Paweł Korzeniowski - Immortal division at Gallipoli Combat of 29. Infantry Division on Gallipoli peninsula in 1915 year
Stephen Pope - The First Tank Crews: The Lives of the Tankmen Who Fought at the Battle of Flers Courcelette 15 September 1916
Ian Ousby - Road to Verdun
Krzysztof Marcinek - Passchendaele, Campaign in Flanders 1917
Ernest Hemingway - A Farewell to Arms
Witold J. Ławrynowicz - Amiens 1916
P. Rotmistrow - Tanks Yesterday and Today
Witold J. Ławrynowicz - Schneider CA, St. Chamond
Witold J. Ławrynowicz - A7V and Precursors Of German Armour
Witold J. Ławrynowicz - Tank Renault FT
Wiktor Kucharski - Cavalry and Armour In War Doctrines 1918-1939
Michał Piwoszczuk - 1. Tank Regiment 1918-1920
David French - Raising Churchill's Army: The British Army and the War Against Germany 1919-1945
Adam Jońca - Polish Armoured Trains 1921-1939
Maxim Kołomyjec, Ilja Łoszczański - T35, Su-14
Czesław K. Grzelak - Stalin’s Army - 1939-1941
Georgij Konstantinovich Zhukov - Soviet-Japanese conflict over Khalkin Gol river in 1939 year
Daniel Koreś - Tigers, Sturmgeshutzes, Jagdpanthers
Michail Baryatinski - T-34 Tank
Krzysztof M. Gaj - Polish Armour in 1939 year
Krzysztof M. Gaj - 10. Cavalry Brigade in 1939 year
Piotr Sadowski - Jordanów 1939 History and memory of first battle of 10. Cavalry Brigade
David R. Higgins - Osprey Duel 66: Panzer I vs. 7TP
Maciej Wojewoda, Jakub Wojewoda - Battle of Bzura
Karl-Heinz Frieser - The Blitzkrieg Legend
Steven J. Zaloga - Panzer IV vs. Char B1 Bis
Robert Forczyk - Tank Warfare on the Eastern Front 1941-1942: Schwerpunkt
Russian Land Fortifications
Jack Radey, Charles C. Sharp - The Defense of Moscow 1941: The Northern Flank
Krzysztof Kubiak - Raid on St. Nazaire. Between Strategy and Tactics
Bill Yenne - White Rose of Stalingrad
Gunther K. Koschorrek - Blood Red Snow : The Memoirs of a German Soldier on the Eastern Front
Robert Forczyk - Tank Warfare on the Eastern Front 1943-1945: Red Steamroller
Vasilij Briuchow - Red Tanker - War in T-34 on Eastern Front
Roman Toeppel - Kursk 1943: The Greatest Battle of the Second World War
Michail Baryatinski - JS Tank
Steven J. Zaloga - Rangers Lead the Way: Pointe-du-Hoc D-Day 1944
Krzysztof M. Gaj - 1. Armored Division
Evan McGilvray - The Black Devils March: A Doomed Odyssey: The 1st Polish Armoured Division 1939-1945
Wyganowska-Eriksson Anna - Armored Platoon of “Zośka” Battalion in Warsaw Uprising
Sawicki Tadeusz - Sentence on a City
Military Technology of Polish People’s Army. XXX years of development 1943-1973
Melchior Wańkowicz - Battle of Monte Cassino
Krzysztof M. Gaj - 16. Armored Brigade
Marian Mikołajczuk - Fighter Aircraft Jak-23
Robert Mason - Chickenhawk
Przemysław Benken - Hamburger Hill 1969
J.Z. Nowikow F.D.Swierdłow - Maneuvre / Meeting Engagement
Armed Forces of Capitalist Countries
Nuclear Weapons and Development of Tactics / Anti-Tank Warfare
Lutow, Sahajdak - Infantry Battalion as Airborne Assault
Awidgor Kalahani - Heights of Courage
Łukasz Nadolski - Iraqi Blitzkrieg
Łukasz Nadolski - Dead City New Year Assault on Grozny: December 1994 - January 1995
Łukasz Nadolski - Winter Campaign On Ukraine 2015
A pin of the 4th "SCORPION” Armoured Regiment (4 Pułk Pancerny “Skorpion”), 2nd “Warsaw” Armoured Brigade, 2nd Polish Corps in Italy.
The regiment, nominally under the British command, was formed in the Middle East from Polish POWs released from the Soviet camps, and took part in the battles of Monte Cassino, Ancona and Bologne. It was equipped with the US-made M4A2 Sherman tanks. It was disbanded in 1947.
Today’s Flickr photo(s) with the most hits show a significant spike - with the Commonwealth War Cemetery at Monte Cassino, and its Polish counterpart, being far and away the images with the most hits.
My uncle Jim (mum’s brother) fought here.
German prisoners of war are rounded up after the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italy - 1944
i have very few goals in life
- spread more hate towards comic book writers named tom for what they did to nightwing and batcat
- make people aware of all the historical "best friends" that were actually queer as fuck
- let people know that in WWII the polish army had a bear named Wojtek and he was a Corporal. he helped carry supplies during the battle of Monte Cassino and was a very adorable rascal. he once helped uncover a spy, he ate lit cigarettes and chased the oranges they used for granade practice. i attached some photos because they are adorable.
Icon, Saint&Reading: Sat., Mar. 27, 2021
Commemorated on March 14_by the new calendar
Venerable Benedict of Nursia, abbot (543)
The Monk Benedict, founder of the western monastic order of the Benedictines, was born in the Italian city of Nursia in the year 480. At 14 years of age the saint was sent off by his parents for studies at Rome, but vexed at the immorality there surrounding him, he decided to devote himself to a different sort of life. At first Saint Benedict settled near the church of the holy Apostle Peter in the village of Effedum, but news about his ascetic life compelled him to go farther into the mountains. There he encountered the hermit Romanus, who tonsured him into monasticism and directed him to a remote cave for a domicile. From time to time the hermit would bring the saint food. For three years in total solitude the saint waged an harsh struggle with temptations and conquered them. People soon began to gather to him, thirsting to live under his guidance. The number of disciples grew so much, that the saint divided them into twelve communities. Each community was comprised of twelve monks and was a separate skete-monastery. And to each skete the saint gave an hegumen-abbot from among his experienced disciples.
With the Monk Benedict remained only the new-made monks for instruction.
The strict monastic-rule, established by Saint Benedict for the monks, was not taken to heart by everyone, and the monk more than once became the victim of abuse and vexation.
Finally he settled in Campagna and on Mount Cassino he founded the Monte Cassino monastery, which for a long time was a centre of theological education for the Western Church. At the monastery was created a remarkable library. And at this monastery the Monk Benedict wrote his ustav-rule, based on the experience of life of the Eastern wilderness-dwellers and the precepts of the Monk John Cassian the Roman (Comm. 29 February). The monastic-rule was accepted afterwards by many of the Western monasteries (by the year 1595 it had come out in more than 100 editions). The rule prescribed for monks an absolute renunciation of personal possessions, unconditional obedience and constant work. It was considered the duty of older monks to teach children and to copy out ancient manuscripts. This helped to preserve many memorable writings, belonging to the first centuries of Christianity. Every new postulant was required to live as a novice-obedient over the course of a year, to learn the monastic rule and to become acclimated to monastic life. Every deed required a blessing. The head of this common-life monastery is the hegumen-abbot, having all the fulness of power. He discerns, teaches and explains. The hegumen solicits the advice of the elders and the experienced brethren, but he personally makes the decision. The fulfilling of the monastic-rule is strictly binding for everyone and is regarded as an important step, nigh to perfection.
Saint Benedict was vouchsafed of the Lord the gift of foresight and wonderworking. He healed many by his prayers. The monk foretold his end beforehand.
The sister of Saint Benedict, Saint Scholastica, likewise became famed for her strict ascetic life and was ennumerated to the ranks of the Saints.
© 1996-2001 by translator Fr. S. Janos.
ICON: The Theodorov (Feodorov) - Kostroma
Commemorated on March 14, August 16_ by the new calendar
The Theodorov (Feodorov) - Kostroma Icon of the Mother of God was written by the Evangelist Luke and is close in iconography to the Vladmir Icon of the Mother of God.
This icon received its name from GreatPrince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (+ 1246), the father of Saint Alexander Nevsky, and who received in holy Baptism the name Theodore (Feodor) – in honour of Saint Theodore Stratelates. It was found, according to tradition, by his elder brother, Saint Yurii Vsevolodovich (+ 1238, Comm. 4 February), in an old wooden chaplet near the old city of Gorodets – later on at this spot was built the Gorodetsk Theodorov monastery. Prince Yaroslav-Theodore became the GreatPrince of Vladimir after his brother Saint Yurii perished in battle with the Tatar-Mongols at the Sita River, and subsequently in the year 1239, he solemnly transferred the relics of his brother from Rostov to the Vladimir Uspenie (Dormition) cathedral. And with this same icon inherited from his brother, he blessed his own son, Saint Alexander Nevsky, who that very year entered into marriage with the daughter of the Polovetsian prince Briacheslav.
Yaroslav-Theodore left behind in Russian history a remarkable memory of himself. He continued with the glorious traditions of his uncle – Saint Andrei Bogoliubsky (Comm. 4 July), and of his father – Vsevolod III Big-Nest ("Bol'shoe Gnezdo"), and he was thus connected to almost all of the significant events in the history of Rus' in the first half of the XIII Century. He inherited the legacy of Rus', burnt and hacked apart in the years 1237-1238 by the Tatar-Mongols. He raised it up from the ashes, rebuilt and embellished the cities, the holy monasteries and the churches. He restored cities along the Volga devastated by the enemy: Kashin, Uglich, Yaroslavl', Kostroma, Gorodets. The church of Theodore Stratelates at Kostroma and the Theodorov monastery near Gorodets were founded by him in honour of his patron saint. For all of eight years he stood at the helm as greatprince, but during this while he had to guide the land through a singularly difficult path for these times – maintaining a military-political balance with the Golden Horde to the East, while mounting an active opposition to Catholic Europe in the West. His closest companion was his son, Saint Alexander Nevsky, who also continued his governing policy.
The wonderworking Theodorov Icon of the Mother of God – with the blessing of his father – was constantly with Saint Alexander, and it was his prayer-icon. After his death (Saint Alexander Nevsky died on 14 November 1263 in Gorodets, at the monastery founded by his father), the icon was taken by his younger brother Vasilii.
Vasilii Yaroslavich was the "little-est", that is, he was the youngest (eighth) son of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. In 1246 after the death of his father, (prince Yaroslav was poisoned in the capital city of Mongolia – Karakorum), when he was but five years old, he became prince of the Kostroma appanage-holding – the least important in the domains of his father. But in the year 1272 God destined for him to become GreatPrince of Vladimir. His four years as greatprince (1272-1276) were filled with the typical for these times princely fratricidal quarrels. For several years he waged war against Novgorod with an unruly nephew Dimitrii Alexandrovich. In becoming greatprince, however, Vasilii did not journey off to Vladimir, but remained under the protection of the wonderworking icon at Kostroma, regarding this place more hopeful in case of new outbreaks of strife.
He had occasion also to defend Rus' against external enemies. In 1272, during the course of a Tatar incursion, a Russian army came forth from Kostroma to engage them. On the example of his grandfather, Saint Andrei Bogoliubsky – who took with him on military campaigns the wonderworking Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God, – prince Vasilii went off into battle with the wonderworking Theodorov Icon. Bright rays shot out from the holy image, striking the enemy; the Tatars were routed and expelled from the Russian land.
The chronicles relate, the GreatPrince Vasilii had an especial love for the Church and the clergy. After the martyr's death of the Vladimir bishop Mitrophan during the storming of Vladimir by Tatars on 4 February 1238, the Vladimir diocese had for a long period of years remained as though widowed. This grieved GreatPrince Vasilii. With his help in 1274 there was constructed in Vladimir the large Cathedral church. This was apparently in connection with the consecration as bishop of Vladimir of Sainted Serapion (+ 1275, Comm. 12 July) – who was an hegumen from Pechersk; this was presided over by Metropolitan Kirill III (+ 1282) and a sobor-council of Russian hierarchs. The purpose of the council's actions was quite extensive – this was the first Sobor in the Russian Church since the time of the Mongol invasion. Many a problem and disorder had arisen in church life, but the Russian Church was just barely beginning to recover from the woe that had befallen it. A chief task for it was the rebirth of Russian churchly literacy, and the restoration of the tradition of the ancient Russian "princely order". Without books the salvific activity of the Church would be well nigh impossible: they were needed for the Divine-services, and for preaching, for cell meditation by monks, and for at-home reading by believers. With the efforts of Metropolitan Kirill together with the Russian bishops and monk-scholars, this task, – the most important for the subsequent Christian enlightenment of Rus', was successfully undertaken. The Sobor adopted a new redaction of the essential books – the fundamental canonical codex of Orthodox churchly life.
In the year 1276 prince Vasilii finished his life's journey, the most important steps along the way of which were beneathe the overshadowing blessing of the Theodorov Icon of the Mother of God. He died at Kostroma and there also found the place of his final rest. The holy icon has been from that time in the Kostroma cathedral of Saint Theodore Stratelates.
Renewed interest in the Theodorov Icon of the Mother of God and the wide spreading about of its veneration throughout all Russia is connected with events of the beginning of the XVII Century – with the cessation of the Time of Troubles. In the year 1613 the wonderworking Theodorov Icon from the Kostroma cathedral was used in blessing the selection of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. In memory of this historic event there was established under 14 March the general commemoration of the Theodorovsk Icon of the Mother of God. Numerous copies were made from the Kostroma Theodorovsk Icon, and one of the first was commissioned and brought to Moscow by the mother of tsar Mikhail – the nun Martha. From the second half of the XVII Century, various copies of the Theodorov Icon received an enlargement with vignettes, depicting events from the history of the wonderworking icon.
In the year 1670 the monk-deacon Longin from the Kostroma Ipat'ev monastery wrote the "Narrative concerning the manifestations and miracles of the Theodorov Icon of the Mother of God in Kostroma". Not all the things contained in its information co-incides with things previously stated, reflecting the people's memory as regarding chronology and laws.
The Theodorov Icon is two-sided. On the reverse side – is the image of the holy GreatMartyress Paraskeva, depicted in the splendid attire of a princess. It is conjectured, that the image of Paraskeva on the reverse of the icon is connected with the spouse of Saint Alexander Nevsky
John 5:24-30 (
24 Most assuredly, I say to you, he who hears My word and believes in Him who sent Me has everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment, but has passed from death into life. 25 Most assuredly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God; and those who hear will live. 26 For as the Father has life in Himself, so He has granted the Son to have life in Himself, 27 and has given Him authority to execute judgment also, because He is the Son of Man. 28 Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear His voice 29 and come forth-those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation. 30 I can of Myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My own will but the will of the Father who sent Me.
1 Thessalonians 4:13-17
13 But I do not want you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning those who have fallen asleep, lest you sorrow as others who have no hope.14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who sleep in Jesus.15 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord will by no means precede those who are asleep.16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first.17 Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord.
Monte Cassino, Italy 1944 War Department (Combat Bulletin No. 4)
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The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II. The intention was a breakthrough to Rome.
At the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Winter Line was being anchored by Germans holding the Rapido-Gari, Liri and Garigliano valleys and some of the surrounding peaks and ridges. Together, these features formed the Gustav Line. Monte Cassino, a historic hilltop abbey founded in AD 529 by Benedict of Nursia, dominated the nearby town of Cassino and the entrances to the Liri and Rapido valleys. Lying in a protected historic zone, it had been left unoccupied by the Germans, although they manned some positions set into the steep slopes below the abbey's walls.
Repeated pinpoint artillery attacks on Allied assault troops caused their leaders to conclude the abbey was being used by the Germans as an observation post, at the very least. Fears escalated along with casualties and in spite of a lack of clear evidence, it was marked for destruction. On 15 February American bombers dropped 1,400 tons of high explosives, creating widespread damage. The raid failed to achieve its objective, as German paratroopers then occupied the rubble and established excellent defensive positions amid the ruins.
Between 17 January and 18 May, Monte Cassino and the Gustav defences were assaulted four times by Allied troops. On 16 May, soldiers from the Polish II Corps launched one of the final assaults on the German defensive position as part of a twenty-division assault along a twenty-mile front. On 18 May, a Polish flag followed by the British Union Jack were raised over the ruins. Following this Allied victory, the German Senger Line collapsed on 25 May. The German defenders were finally driven from their positions, but at a high cost. The capture of Monte Cassino resulted in 55,000 Allied casualties, with German losses being far fewer, estimated at around 20,000 killed and wounded...
332 – Emperor Constantine the Great announces free distributions of food to the citizens in Constantinople.
872 – Louis II of Italy is crowned for the second time as Roman Emperor at Rome, at the age of 47. His first coronation was 28 years earlier, in 844, during the reign of his father Lothair I.
1096 – First Crusade: Around 800 Jews are massacred in Worms, Germany.
1152 – The future Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. He would become king two years later, after the death of his cousin once removed King Stephen of England.
1268 – The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, falls to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Siege of Antioch.
1291 – Fall of Acre, the end of Crusader presence in the Holy Land.
1302 – Bruges Matins, the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges by members of the local Flemish militia.
1388 – During the Battle of Buyur Lake, General Lan Yu leads a Chinese army forward to crush the Mongol hordes of Tögüs Temür, the Khan of Northern Yuan.
1499 – Alonso de Ojeda sets sail from Cádiz on his voyage to what is now Venezuela.
1565 – The Great Siege of Malta begins, in which Ottoman forces attempt and fail to conquer Malta.
1593 – Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe.
1631 – In Dorchester, Massachusetts, John Winthrop takes the oath of office and becomes the first Governor of Massachusetts.
1652 – Slavery in Rhode Island is abolished, although the law is not rigorously enforced.
1756 – The Seven Years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France.
1783 – First United Empire Loyalists reach Parrtown (later called Saint John, New Brunswick), Canada, after leaving the United States.
1794 – Battle of Tourcoing during the Flanders Campaign of the War of the First Coalition.
1803 – Napoleonic Wars: The United Kingdom revokes the Treaty of Amiens and declares war on France.
1804 – Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed Emperor of the French by the French Senate.
1811 – Battle of Las Piedras: The first great military triumph of the revolution of the Río de la Plata in Uruguay led by José Artigas.
1812 – John Bellingham is found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging for the assassination of British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.
1843 – The Disruption in Edinburgh of the Free Church of Scotland from the Church of Scotland.
1848 – Opening of the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung) in Frankfurt, Germany.
1860 – Abraham Lincoln wins the Republican Party presidential nomination over William H. Seward, who later becomes the United States Secretary of State.
1863 – American Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg begins.
1896 – The United States Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson that the "separate but equal" doctrine is constitutional.
1896 – Khodynka Tragedy: A mass panic on Khodynka Field in Moscow during the festivities of the coronation of Russian Tsar Nicholas II results in the deaths of 1,389 people.
1900 – The United Kingdom proclaims a protectorate over Tonga.
1912 – The first Indian film, Shree Pundalik by Dadasaheb Torne, is released in Mumbai.
1917 – World War I: The Selective Service Act of 1917 is passed, giving the President of the United States the power of conscription.
1926 – Evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson disappears in Venice, California.
1927 – The Bath School disaster: Forty-five people, including many children, are killed by bombs planted by a disgruntled school-board member in Michigan.
1927 – After being founded for 20 years, the Government of the Republic of China approves Tongji University to be among the first national universities of the Republic of China.
1933 – New Deal: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an act creating the Tennessee Valley Authority.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Monte Cassino: Conclusion after seven days of the fourth battle as German paratroopers evacuate Monte Cassino.
1944 – Deportation of Crimean Tatars by the Soviet Union government.
1948 – The First Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China officially convenes in Nanking.
1953 – Jackie Cochran becomes the first woman to break the sound barrier.
1955 – Operation Passage to Freedom, the evacuation of 310,000 Vietnamese civilians, soldiers and non-Vietnamese members of the French Army from communist North Vietnam to South Vietnam following the end of the First Indochina War, ends.
1965 – Israeli spy Eli Cohen is hanged in Damascus, Syria.
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 10 is launched.
1973 – Aeroflot Flight 109 is hijacked mid-flight and the aircraft is subsequently destroyed when the hijacker's bomb explodes, killing all 82 people on board.
1974 – Nuclear weapons testing: Under project Smiling Buddha, India successfully detonates its first nuclear weapon becoming the sixth nation to do so.
1977 – Likud party wins the 1977 Israeli legislative election, with Menachem Begin, its founder, as the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
1980 – Mount St. Helens erupts in Washington, United States, killing 57 people and causing $3 billion in damage.
1980 – Students in Gwangju, South Korea begin demonstrations calling for democratic reforms.
1990 – In France, a modified TGV train achieves a new rail world speed record of 515.3 km/h (320.2 mph).
1991 – Northern Somalia declares independence from the rest of Somalia as the Republic of Somaliland but is not recognized by the international community.
1993 – Riots in Nørrebro, Copenhagen, caused by the approval of the four Danish exceptions in the Maastricht Treaty referendum. Police open fire against civilians for the first time since World War II and injure 11 demonstrators.
1994 – Israeli troops finish withdrawing from the Gaza Strip, ceding the area to the Palestinian National Authority to govern.
2005 – A second photo from the Hubble Space Telescope confirms that Pluto has two additional moons, Nix and Hydra.
2006 – The post Loktantra Andolan government passes a landmark bill curtailing the power of the monarchy and making Nepal a secular country.
2009 – The LTTE are defeated by the Sri Lankan government, ending almost 26 years of fighting between the two sides.
2015 – At least 78 people die in a landslide caused by heavy rains in the Colombian town of Salgar.
2018 – A school shooting at Santa Fe High School in Texas kills ten people.